WEEK 3 LECTURE TOPICS Chapter 8 Lecture Topic This chapter discusses the


Chapter 8 Lecture Topic

This chapter discusses the different philosophies that justify criminal sanctions. Those five include: deterrence, incapacitation, retribution, rehabilitation, and restorative justice. The special case of a mentally ill offender is considered under the concept of the insanity defense.

There are two major sentencing models that can guide a judge’s decisions. These two models are indeterminate sentencing and structured sentencing. Indeterminate sentencing is based on early release through the parole system. Whereas structured sentencing includes determinate guidelines, sentencing guidelines, and presumptive sentencing. Mandatory sentencing, three strikes laws, and truth-in-sentencing laws are examples of structured sentencing. Academic research indicates that the application of criminal sanctions often discriminates against African-Americans and Hispanic males.

While current day society seems to support the use of the death penalty, there is strong opposition and much controversy surrounding its application. Many states are revisiting the decision to use of the death penalty due to the number of wrongful convictions that have been documented in recent years. DNA evidence has played a major role in freeing those wrongfully convicted. Data on the effectiveness of sentencing in reducing crime rates indicate that more studies needed.

Chapter 9 Lecture Topic

Historically speaking, the Pennsylvania Walnut Street Jail and Eastern State Penitentiary and New York’s Auburn State Prison established distinctively American correctional models. Early American jails and prisons had rehabilitation as a goal. Prison labor was exploited, especially in colonies with indentured servitude and in southern penal systems, which operated the convict lease system. Prison reforms came about during the Warren Court era, with rulings that inmates had the right to sue the government over prison conditions and civil rights violations.

Jails are short-term multipurpose facilities that serve as a gateway to the criminal justice system. Federal jails are operated through the U.S. Bureau of Prisons. County jails are maintained by the sheriffs’ departments, and municipal jails by local police departments. State prisons house only convicted felony offenders. States run reception and diagnosis centers to classify incoming inmates and place them in appropriate facilities, minimum, medium, or maximum-security prisons. Supermax prisons hold the most violent inmates in a highly secured lockdown structure.

Prison populations include men, youths, the elderly, women, gang members, inmates living with AIDS, and persons with other health problems or mental illnesses, and these populations challenge the correctional system. Federal prisons such as Alcatraz were built during the prohibition era and are run by the Federal Bureau of Prisons. The federal prison system parallels the state prison systems in classification and administration, but federal prisons have higher standards for employment. Private jails and prisons were sought as a solution to prison overcrowding and the high cost of building and staffing correctional, but have been plagued with problems pertaining to professionalism.

Chapter 10 Lecture Topic

The growing number of offenders and the high cost of prisons have resulted in the early release of millions of inmates. The types of early release include: mandatory release, goodtime release, pardon, commutation of sentence, probation, and parole. The historic practice of probation originated with shoemaker John Augustus of Boston in the mid-1800s. Probation is a suspended sentence, granted by the trial judge on the basis of information contained in the presentence investigation report.

Probation and parole have many advantages, including lower cost, creating more beds space for jails and prisons, and the ability to use community resources to help rehabilitate offenders. Disadvantages include potential dangers to the community and repeat offending. Probation can be revoked for a technical violation, noncompliance with court officers, or the commission of a new crime. Probationers and parolees have some due process rights in the revocation of release.

Parole is conditional early release from prison and is granted by the parole board, which is responsible for deciding which prisoners are released early. Parole hearings do not have to provide the same constitutional rights to inmates that they receive at criminal trials. The origins of parole are found in Maconochie’s mark system and the Crofton’s Irish system. Inmates who receive parole must abide by certain conditions and comply with laws and terms of treatment. Parole can be revoked, but the parolee is entitled to notice and a revocation hearing.

Probation and parole officers perform presentence investigation reports and supervise offenders on conditional release in the community. Probation and parole officers act as case workers and law enforcement officers in supervising their clients.[supanova_question]

BSBAUD402 Participate in a Quality Audit Name of Participant: ID No: How

BSBAUD402 Participate in a Quality Audit

Name of Participant:

ID No:

How to complete this Assessment:

To complete this assessment store research, resources and documentation on your computer, with extra readings will be required as well.
Research could include: research on your own organisation to determine processes, procedures, policies and plans that may be required. Other research into current practices for your industry, and academic theory may also be required.

Please read all the information given to you including the Student Handbook and other Help Documents before you start any assessment.

Read the whole assessment before starting your responses.

Refer to your training plan for the assessment due date and correct order to complete this unit.

View and download your assessment on your Online Student Area under the Assessment toggle.

When completing your Assessment please ensure ALL work is your own. If a piece of evidence is partially created by another person, please make a note of this in your submission.

If you need to talk with a trainer call 1800 998 500 to book an appointment. If you feel you are not yet ready to be assessed or need further clarification or understanding, please contact your Assessor.

Upload your assessment into the task submission area with any additional evidence required. Ensure you press ‘submit for grading’ to submit your work. Ensure that you write the minimum number of sentences when a written answer is required, giving a good explanation to show your understanding or skills in relation to the topic.

When you have been notified that your assessment is marked go to the ‘View your Grades & Results’ toggle for your unit on the Online Student Area. If you need to make any changes to your assessment, please do so and resubmit under the Assessment toggle.

If you need help with any of the above, view your help documents on the home page of your Online Student Area or call 1800 998 500.

*Please see Assessment Requirements on back page.

Tasks included in this Assessment Portfolio include:

T411 – Review Auditee documentation

T412 – Participate in developing audit schedules

T413 – Gather and analyse information

T414 – Evaluate information

T415 – Report findings

T416 – Participate in exit meeting

T417 – Research and Explain

Date assessment is due ___/___/____ Also refer to your Training Plan.

Task 411 – Review auditee documentation

Choose one of the following;

Work Organised Quality Audit (they have going on or that you have done in the past)

An auditable area of a Project that you are managing going to manage or have managed

An auditable area of a club or non for profit organisation you are familiar with.

An auditable area of Your work area or work tasks

Choose one of the 4 options above.

Auditable Areas include but not limited to the following; communication and reporting to authority and stakeholders. Human Resources (Employing, recruitment, select and induction of staff), Performance managing staff in project, contract for project, Finance (cost), Time, Admin (Forms, Reporting), Risk Management, WHS, Quality, Environment/sustainability.

Complete the following, checking that you have the policies and procedures required to audit against.

T411.1 Explain using 4-6 sentences the Auditable area you will use as your case study. Also clearly explain what standards, regulations, legislation codes of practice or benchmarks you will be auditing against.

T411.2 Explain using 4-6 sentences, provide 3 reasons why, reviewing your auditee’s previous quality audits to establish possible impacts on the current audit is important.

T411.3 As an auditor of your chosen case study, list the relevant organisational documents you would want to review and using 4-6 sentences explain how you would check the adequacy of these documents.

T411.4 As an auditor of your chosen case study and using 4-6 sentences explain how you would determine if the documents you received from the auditee in T411.3 were not complete or unsuitable and then, and go about obtaining any further documentation you require.

T411.5 As an auditor of your chosen case study and using 4-6 sentences explain how you would resolve issues which arise with auditee and relevant parties

Task 412 – Participate in developing audit schedules

For your case study chosen in T 411 undertake the following;

T412.1 Decide on a Narrow area of scope for your audit case study. You may need to discuss this with your trainer for approval. Prepare and provide the appropriate checklists and a list of the tools and copies of audit related documentation for the audit. Some documents you can consider are Engagement agreement, Interview record form, Corrective Action Form (CAR), Observations forms, Checklists.

T412.2 Prepare and provide an audit schedule and a list of required resources to provide to the auditee before beginning auditing activities.

T412.3 Provide a list of possible issues and outline strategies to address these issues, should they arise. Consider aspects like emergencies, key people absent etc.

T412.4 Explain the process you would use to ensure preparation activities and documentation correspond to the audit plan.

T412.5 As an auditor of your chosen case study and using 4-6 sentences explain how you would consult with your auditing team to determine appropriate methods and techniques

T412.6 Thinking about your Audit, create entry and exit meeting agenda templates for your audit. For meeting agenda templates please ensure you include Who is to be there (CEO, Managers, Audit team), where and when the meeting would be held and meeting items to be covered.

Task 413 – Gather and analyse information

For your case study chosen in T 411 undertake the following;

T413.1 Using 4-6 sentences explain how you would access a range of potential sources of information and provide a list of these potential sources.

T413.2 Using 4-6 sentences explain how you would collect and make an initial assessment of sample documentation.

T413.3 Using 4-6 sentences explain how you would interview appropriate persons in relation to relevant documentation.

T413.4 Identify and report patterns, trends, interrelationships and areas of risk for your case study.

T413.5 Identify and list aspects of the audit that require the use of specialists and request appropriate assistance explaining why you believe this is the case.

Task 414 – Evaluate information

For your case study chosen in T 411 undertake the following;

T414.1 Evaluate the information against prescribed benchmarks suitable to the area of audit.

T414.2 Form and provide your defensible opinion as to the meeting of these benchmarks by the auditee

T414.3 Clearly show how your opinions are formed from and supported by available information by referencing the correct information.

Task 415 – Report findings

For your case study chosen in T 411 and from your evaluation in T414 undertake the following;

T415.1 Explain how you would Formulate your findings, prepare and provide a corrective action report if discrepancies or noncompliances are detected.

T415.2 Using 4-6 sentences explain how you would examine results/findings against audit objectives and present to lead auditor

T415.3 Provide a report with your recommendations for improvements as applicable

Task 416 – Participate in exit meeting

For your case study chosen in T 411 and from your evaluation in T412.6 undertake the following;

T416.1 Prepare for exit meeting by adding specific aspects to the exit agenda you started in T412.6. Provide updated agenda.

T416.2 Using 4-6 sentences explain how you would ensure reporting arrangements are agreed upon and documented during the meeting

T416.3 Using 4-6 sentences explain how you would ensure context and consequences of audit are explained and follow up is discussed.

Task 417 – Research and Explain

You may need to research for some of your answers to the following.

Using 4-6 sentences each explain the following;

T417.1 Describe relevant auditing codes of ethics.

T417.2 Outline methods and techniques for auditing.

T417.3 Summarise current audit practices

T417.4 Identify current industry products and/or services to assist in the auditing process

*Assessment Requirements

Complete ALL assessment tasks, projects and questions to a Satisfactory standard, ensuring that you provide enough evidence for your Assessor to prove that you are competent in the unit.

Complete this Assessment which involves research and other activities that will make sure you have the skills and knowledge required to demonstrate that you are competent in this unit.

Each assessment task is designed to assess your understanding and skills of the unit.

Sometimes activities may be available that will help you understand the ‘whys’ and the ‘how’s’- the theories and techniques- and to enrich your skills so that they are transferable to other situations.

If you do NOT complete some sections of a task, provide enough details etc., your evidence will be deemed Not Satisfactory – More Evidence Required.

Your Assessor will then ask you to provide ‘More Evidence’, so that you can resubmit your assessment or ask you some further questions. You are allowed to resubmit your assessment evidence up to 3 times before you are deemed Not Yet Competent for the unit – Please refer to Global Training Institute Handbook, found on your Online Student Area, for more details.

BSBAUD402 Assessment.5 Page 3 of 3 ©Botinvest 2013

Z:\2 – Production\Quals & Units\BSB\IV Units\BSBAUD402 Participate in a quality audit\Current Assessment\BSBAUD402 Assessment.5.doc[supanova_question]

PROJECT PLAN Student number: Project Name: CONTENTS INTRODUCTION You should present a


Student number:

Project Name:



You should present a brief introduction of your project here.

You should also explain what your product (or service) is.

You should also explain what your chosen method of project management is and why it is appropriate.


You should explain how the project goes from an idea to completion (including timescales).

Discuss your project lifecycle in detail, making references to appropriate documents in your appendices (e.g. PMP, CPA, Gantt chart).

You should also discuss major obstacles (risks) to your project and how you will deal with them.

Discuss your success metrics and project governance.

Make frequent references to your appendices.

Include appropriate academic references.


You should explain here what steps you will follow in closing the project (including timescales).

You should explain how the project will be handed over to the client if appropriate.

You should reflect on other obstacles (risks) you envisage to your project (and how you will deal with them) if you were going to project manage this in the real world

Make references to your appendices

Include appropriate academic references


List a minimum of 5 academic sources here plus your course textbook.


List appendices here (Do NOT paste any appendices here)


Create a Tic-Tac- Toe GUI based game using the Tkinter module of Python

Writing Assignment Help The program should include (1) a GUI (Tkinter). (2) appropriate variable names and comments. and 4 of the following: (i) control statements; (iii) data structures such as lists, dictionaries, or tuples; (iv) functions; and (v) one or more classes.
– include a Microsoft Word document explaining algorithms used in your program
– a UML diagram of the program
– Pseudocode of the program (in Microsoft word)

7 mins ago https://onlyassignmenthelp.com/index.php/2021/11/27/please-revise-my-essay-my-instructor-specifically-said-it-needs-to-be-at-least-1000-words-just-in-the/ [supanova_question]



In this discussion, you will consider the relevance of managerial accounting in different professional roles. Briefly research career opportunities that require knowledge or experience with managerial accounting. You can do so by following these steps:

Navigate to the SNHU Career module in this course and click the SNHU Career link.

Once on the webpage, choose the “Explore Career Options” to browse career areas.

After exploring careers, choose the Handshake link from the related resources to view current job postings.



Do you have a field or career you are interested in pursuing? Look for job roles or descriptions in that field, and consider how managerial accounting principles and skills can be applied to them.

In your initial post, introduce yourself, and then address the following:

Describe at least two potential positions related to managerial accounting that you personally found to be interesting, and explain why they were noteworthy to you. Include a link to the job posting or job description.

(4) Associate Product Manager – Field | Stanley Black & Decker | Handshake (joinhandshake.com)

(4) Financial Advisor- New Advisor Development Program | Baystate Financial | Handshake (joinhandshake.com)

Compare these positions and job descriptions to those that require a background in financial accounting. Are they similar or different?[supanova_question]

9 Problem Statement (PICOT) University Couse name Instructor Due Date PART 1:


Problem Statement (PICOT)


Couse name


Due Date



The aggression and patient’s violence in any health facility commonly leads to psychological, physical, and economic impacts on the patients concerned, health facilities, and society. Evidence has indicated that the patients tend to initiate physical and severe verbal aggression, hence becoming a longstanding challenge affecting medical experts and specifically nurses who work in psychiatric health facility settings. The problem of patient violence has led to a rise in the need for effective prediction of patients prone to violence and aggression.

Need Statement

The identification and the health need management of patient’s aggression and violence have become an important component in psychiatric practices. Many health organizations and platforms have emphasized their commitment reduction of medical facility violence by predicting patient’s aggression and violence rather than controlling it. With the Fact that doing away with patient aggression and violence is almost impossible, its health promotion, quality improvement, prevention, and management need can be enhanced. The need to predict patient’s aggression and violence has risen as more patients have been found causing such violence in the medical facilities.

Despite the implementation of patient violence assessment, which public interests have driven, it has remained uncertain on the causes contributing to the aggression and violence of the patients in psychiatric facilities. Some research resources have researched the factors leading to the patient’s aggression and violence in the hospital, provided the control but not the preventive measures (Douglas, 2021, 145). The quality of the nurse’s services to the patients is thus crucial for managing and controlling aggression and violence in medical facilities. Educating nurses on the preventive measures in psychiatric facilities becomes essential in optimizing clinical support in predicting patients prone to aggression and violence in health facilities.

Population and Setting

The study will take place at a psychiatric facility in Germany, which is a speaking region of Switzerland. The participating community is a closed admission facility that offers complete patient psychiatric treatment to those living in these catchment areas. A prospective research of a small sample of admitted hospital mental patients will be conducted in order to create instruments with 200 patients and a clinical application with 300 patients. A 6-item BVC and a 6-point score derived from the Visual analog scale will be used to assess the risk of clinical health facility attack. This test is used because it is simple to reliably predict patient aggression in a short amount of time.

Intervention Overview

There is a possibility of positive social change in psychiatric health settings when the empowering and knowledge increase of the medical experts, especially the nurses, creates an environment of safe working conditions, resulting in unproven care and quality improvement (Davidson, 2021, 407). The focus on risk assessment, emotional intelligence, and improvement of communication skills for health experts in managing aggressive patients and patient’s family members effectively advances nurse knowledge, hence reducing patients’ magnitude of physical and verbal violence in mental health settings.

The unsafe workplace makes the nurses unable to deliver acceptable safety and quality services to the patients. This makes it better to adopt and implement evidence-based education programs to prevent the patient’s aggression and violence by psychiatric hospital patients so as for the nurse to deliver both quality and safe patient services.

Some techniques are being used in the management of patient’s aggression in psychiatric health settings. Chemical restraints, de-escalation, and seclusion are the techniques mainly used in managing the patient’s aggression. However, seclusion and chemical restraints are myths that have historically failed (Muscat, 2021, 302-304). Thus, they should only be used in the patient’s violent behavior management that poses an urgent risk to hospital patients, hence a need for its discontinuation soonest. As a result, there has been a push to train medical nurses in aggressiveness prevention rather than aggression control. As a result, it has risen to prominence in scholarly debate as a leading remedy for psychiatric patient anger and violence.

The patient’s aggression and violence are common psychiatric problems that attract temporary measures of prevention. The patients’ aggressive, timely use of measures of prevention do presuppose preceded assessment of risk. One of the suitable instruments for short-term violence prediction is the Broset Violence Checklist. The study will aim to predict the patient’s aggression and violence by combining the overall subjective risk assessment of the clinical facility and the Broset Violence Checklist (Garber, 2021, 27). Testing the combined measure application is a routine practice.

Comparison Approaches

The clinical patient’s aggression prediction following the patient gets used to several approaches consideration of psychopathological states. The system is normally based on obverted patient behavior. Validation of patient behavior from the Broset Violence Checklist was done in Germany and Norwegian (Jiang, 2021,213). There has been an assessment of six patient behaviors observations, which may result in aggression. Such behaviors include whether the patent is irritated, confused, boisterous, verbal threats, physical threats, and object attacks.

Another intervention clinical prediction model emphasizes the nurses’ ability to predict the aggression and violence of the patients. The patient predictive subject is normally operationalized through visual analog scales. The combination of both methods would improve the patient’s aggression prediction.

Research Outcome

The main expected outcome is the occurrence of a patient’s physical attackers. The patient’s aggressive event will be recorded using staff observation of the aggression scale. The implementation of intensive prevention measures like forced injection and seclusion is an expected secondary outcome (Mossman, 2021, 783). This will help in the evaluation of the necessary intensive aggression preventive measures. The dataset will be about 200 admitted patients in six wards that are within the hospital. The time of the research study will be two months for effective results.

The second data set will be 300 patients who are admitted to the ward for six months. The 12 beds are located in separate health facilities to ensure that the datasets are diverse and unrelated. For tool development, the psychotic nurses assess the patients twice a day. In addition to BVC and the visual analog scale, the assessment forms include a questionnaire.

Time Estimate

Globally, several programs and interventions have been put in place to prevent patients’ aggression and violence. Communities have come together to provide quality services to the patients as they provide safe working conditions for the medical experts. In the development of the intervention, it will need six months. This time frame will ensure the intervention results are well evaluated. Due to the rise of unexpected challenges like an outbreak of disease and political instability, this may impact the stipulated time frame.

The implementation of the intervention is a process. For the success of this implementation, there will need real-time, which is about eight months. This time will ensure that all the processes for implantation are followed up, the community educated the quality at large improved. However, the time frame may be affected by resistance by some members of the society and their failure to cooperate.

PART 2: Literature Review


The aggression of the patients is a common challenge experienced in psychiatric health wards. Violent behaviors threaten the patients’ health and the medical health of the doctors. There is a high number of nurse’s victimization in the management of patient violence, which is a basic component in clinical and health practice.

Several attempts have been in the introduction of accurate measures necessary for aggression and violence prediction. The two methods are the prediction models, and the second one is the actuarial methods. The actuarial models have outlined factors such as gender, patient’s age, and the diagnosis state of the patient (Zhong, 2021, 1-9). The previous studies that conducted this research have found that hospital patients who exhibit such violent behaviors were more likely to be aggressive and violent in new hospital admission than those without historical aggression behavior.

The actuarial methods developed critics in that they have discarded the staff experiences dealing with the concerned patients. The technique also performs less in non-forensic settings (Mossman, 2021, 783). The actuarial method has critics that they also require certain data of the admitted patients, which may not be available.

Validation of the Research

There is an existence of large literature on the prediction of aggression and violence of the patients. Some of these are the cause of people with mental illness. In the study of Carnegie, they provided data of 110 studies of which over 45 0000 individuals participated (Mossman, 2021, 783). The study shows that the aggression and violence factors found more than 146 were involved in violent behaviors.

Based on other historical studies, the patient’s criminal history is one of the causes of the patient’s aggression and violence. The previous studies have also shown that there are other dynamic causes of patient’s aggressive behaviors. Such emotional factors include hostile behavior, drug misuse, or even a recent taken drug. Witt and Colleagues’ (2013) study has shown that heterogeneity considerations have existed in previous study samples.

Many researchers have noted earlier cases of inadequate medical care supplied by forceful people. This research has been carried out because there have been instances of patients having committed crimes. At the same time, in medical facilities, the researcher wishes to discover what type of behavior predicts such instances and whether there are preventative measures to be taken (Zhong, 2021,1-9). Since the time of chaos arising, it has led to a high and serious focus on the study of violence control and prevention.

This prior research has also demonstrated the necessity of regularly screening all patients for aggressive behavior before admittance into medical facilities. The international health department presents several preventive guidelines for patients’ aggressive and violent behavior. The concepts here are based on rigorous research, public awareness, and patient cooperation. Regular medical experts training is also necessary for such personnel.

Several literature studies have indicated an adverse increase in patients’ arrogance, aggressiveness, and violence in hospitals. This has affected the nurses adversely. The reduction of violence threats and severity is important for increases nurses’ medical care and improved facilities (Jiang, 2021, 218). The prediction of violence is important for prevention measures to be taken.

Basing on the Psychiatric Care Units, the emergency services for violent patients are short-term and frequent predictions are initialized. Violent patients in these settings present very severe health crises complicated by patient’s dyscontrol and substance misuse, and severe diagnosis.

Predicting and preventing violent conduct is made much easier by employing a large assortment of available data such as historical research, medical history, treatment condition, the patient’s behaviors, and real psychological problems. A historical medical report, the diagnosis, or substance misuse are the main predictors of patient violence or aggression (Garber, 2021, 19-27). These indicators, therefore, have less value or limited value in today’s clinical examinations based on the global patient’s clinical judgment.

Health policy Evaluation

In a PICU retrospective study, there has been a demonstration that nurses can predict patients violence with a relatively higher degree with a period limit of 24 hours a day while assessing them thrice a day using a browser violence checklist (Jiang, 2021,218). Differential methods used in research, research designs, measurement outcomes, and research settings normally make it a challenge in comparison or research patient studies of short-term violence prediction.

Most research designs have a weakness in underreporting of medical incidents, correction failure of therapeutic interventions, and influence disregard took from the environment of patient’s treatment (Garber, 2021, 27). The conditions related to the domain have been indicated as a cause of the patient’s aggressiveness.

The historical literature of rating scales has specifically made development in frequency measurements, incident threats, or violence severity, which have minimized the research methods problems. According to the previous studies, the threatening frequencies in medical facilities have differed with psychiatric disorders stages. One of the highest frequencies reported of patient aggressiveness is indicated in the emergency settings of the first few days.

The basic aim of the present research study is to present an optimized method of patient aggressiveness and violence prediction in clinical or medical facilities (Jiang, 2021,218). Based on the evaluations at the admittance, the threats and violent behaviors are first experienced in the first few days of admission. These patients’ conditions are normally the age, the patient’s gender, and the patient’s diagnosis status. At admission, a BVC instrument measures the patient’s behavior, their clinical impression, and their predictive qualities.

Psychiatric facilities have also documented patient’s aggressiveness prediction properties, including acute and medical emergency departments. This documentation has outlined that though the BVC is considered a sure predictor of a patient’s aggressiveness and violence, its main focus is the immediate behavior of the patient. Therefore, other variables may directly affect the patients’ behavior, resulting in their brutality in medical facilities. Such variable which has not been included in BVC is sleep (Garber, 2021, 27). Previous research has shown that sleep can directly affect the patient, causing aggressiveness and violence in medical facilities.

Additionally, based on the study conducted by the St Olav’s university hospital, the study was conducted on 700 patients who were admitted. Such patients were aged 18 years and above. These patients were from an area that had a population of approximately 1400000 individuals. The hospital had separated rooms, which had resting rooms and also patient’s rooms. The research indicates that the patients had remained with the patients as they observed them with an interval of 3 minutes to 30 minutes, following the patient’s state of diagnosis. Their details of hospitals, the number of people in the area, and the PICU have also been documented. They also examined the patients who spend in the hospital for six months. Their research has indicated a high chance of patients becoming aggressive and violent in the hospitals, hence a need for better prediction methods of patient violence.


The previous researches leave a gap in the optimal prediction clinical support alert that may predict the patient’s behavior of violence and thus a need for more research. Therefore, this project research will focus on optimizing the prediction for aggressiveness and violence of patients in medical facilities (Garber, 2021, 27). During the investigation, techniques such as the browser violence checklist, the violence risk scale, the patient’s classification of violence risk, and the dynamic assessment of situational aggression will be used. Therefore, the project will be necessary to effectively prevent aggressiveness and violence in hospitals rather than control such problems.


Davidson, K. W., Silverstein, M., Cheung, K., Paluch, R. A., & Epstein, L. H. (2021). Experimental Designs to Optimize Treatments for Individuals: Personalized N-of-1 Trials. JAMA pediatrics, 175(4), 404-409. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/article-abstract/2776426

Do Nascimento, I. J. B., Marcolino, M. S., Abdulazeem, H. M., Weerasekara, I., Azzopardi-Muscat, N., Gonçalves, M. A., & Novillo-Ortiz, D. (2021). Impact of Big Data Analytics on People’s Health: Overview of Systematic Reviews and Recommendations for Future Studies. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 23(4), e27275. https://www.jmir.org/2021/4/e27275/

Douglas, K. S., Cox, D. N., & Webster, C. D. (1999). Violence risk assessment: Science and practice. Legal and criminological psychology, 4(2), 149-184. https://bpspsychub.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1348/135532599167824

Duxbury, J. (2002). An evaluation of staff and patient views of and strategies employed to manage inpatient aggression and violence on one mental health unit: a pluralistic design. Journal of psychiatric and mental health nursing, 9(3), 325-337. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1365-2850.2002.00497.x

Duxbury, J., & Whittington, R. (2005). Causes and management of patient aggression and violence: staff and patient perspectives. Journal of advanced nursing, 50(5), 469-478. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2005.03426.x

Elbogen, E. B., Fuller, S., Johnson, S. C., Brooks, S., Kinneer, P., Calhoun, P. S., & Beckham, J. C. (2010). Improving risk assessment of violence among military veterans: An evidence-based approach for clinical decision-making. Clinical psychology review, 30(6), 595-607. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272735810000498

Garber, A. K., Cheng, J., Accurso, E. C., Adams, S. H., Buckelew, S. M., Kapphahn, C. J., … & Golden, N. H. (2021). Short-term outcomes of the study of refeeding to optimize inpatient gains for patients with anorexia nervosa: a multicenter randomized clinical trial. JAMA pediatrics, 175(1), 19-27. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/article-abstract/2771984

Jiang, L., Sutherland, M. A., Hutchinson, M. K., & Si, B. (2021). A Multi-Center Structural Equation Modeling Approach to Investigate Interpersonal Violence Screening for Public Health Promotion. Frontiers in Public Health, 9, 744. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2021.637222/full

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