To answer this post, I feel it is good to know what

To answer this post, I feel it is good to know what the writer had to write about. Below you will find the past assignment. In yellow is the requirements for the reply.

One source is required to be used in the reply

Below the yellow is the post that needs requires a reply

As population health researchers published data and reports surrounding the social determinants that affected health, media headlines and journal article titles such as “Wealth is Health!” started appearing.

Read the following article – Fanea-Ivanovici, M., Pana, M.-C., Sacala, M. D., & Voicu, C. (2020). Measuring and Assessing the Wealth Influence on the Efficiency of the Health System through the Private Sector. (Links to an external site.) Engineering Economics, 31(4), 437–449.

Answer the following:

Briefly summarize the article.

Discuss whether you do or do not agree with the idea that “Wealth is Health” related to this article. Provide 2-3 reasons to support your selection.

Briefly describe the relationship between the health and wealth of a population? Provide 1-2 real-world examples to illustrate your description.

Besides healthcare policies, describe how one other policy domain (e.g., housing, education) might influence the relationship between health and wealth.

A substantive initial post answers the question presented completely and/or asks a thoughtful question pertaining to the topic. Substantive peer responses ask a thoughtful question pertaining to the topic and/or answers a question (in detail) posted by another student or the instructor.

Student: Jennifer

As I start this discussion post, I will be honest and share that I found the article challenging to read and found myself having to re-read it repeatedly. To summarize this article, I walked away with the understanding that there is the public and private sector in public health, each having its own pros and cons. The report was based on a case study out of Romania. Fanea-Ivanovici et al., (2020) begins by stating that physiological and cognitive development starts at birth which then sets the stage for their health status. Furthermore, each person possesses a “certain stock of health,” which depreciates with age and requires an investment that maintains one’s health (Fanea-Ivanovici, 2020). Meaning that investment to ensure health will need wealth to invest in that process. 

Additionally, the article focuses on Romania and the struggles they have had regarding public health. Romania versus the European Union has vast differences; Romania has the lowest health expenditure despite increasing budget spending (Fanea-Ivanovici, 2020). In Romania, 86% of the population contributes to health insurance which provides a more comprehensive benefits package, but on the other hand, those who do not pay benefit from a minim package (Fanea-Ivanovici, 2020). Measures were put into place to try and strengthen primary and community care while also reducing expenses associated with specialized and in-patient care. It was interesting to read that provider care was affected by emigration and low wages with people seeking medical professionals outside of Romania. 

Regarding public health, a reduction explains the need to increase efficiency or public health expenditures and represents one way to reform the public health sector (Fanea-Ivanovici, 2020). In contrast, in private health, the increase in occupancy isis negatively associated with the quality of services provided by a public hospital but positively correlates with a population of wealth. Based on the study’s data, it was found that the length of hospitalization increased with a private hospital but decreased in a public hospital and that there was an over-occupancy in a public hospital given the higher amount of patients (Fanea-Ivanovici, 2020). 

I had a hard time deciding whether I agree with the article (one reason I found it challenging to read) and because I can see both sides of the argument. However, since I have to take a stance, I would agree with this article. When Fanea-Ivanocici (2020) begins the article talking about physiological and cognitive development and how it is established at birth, each in their life with a “certain stock of health.” When I think about socioeconomic status, this feels relevant. When a family is wealthy, their children already have an advantage over their counterpart who is not rich. Having wealth means you have access to private health care/hospitals with more funding and physicians to seek care from. Additionally, as we age, we are prone to more health ailments; without insurance or “wealth,” it can be challenging to have those ailments taken care of promptly. 

Another reason I’d argue in favor of this article is when Fanea-Ivanovici (2020) discusses Romania and how citizens there are leaving Romania for other countries to practice medicine or lower wages than Romania has for their physicians. Fanea-Ivanovici (2020) also reports a noted deficit in primary care physicians. Only a quarter of the physicians also specialize in family medicine, whereas one-third are in the European Union. 

A real-world example regarding Canada and children born into poverty. Gupta et al., (2007) state that childhood development lays the foundation for later health and development and requires the best start possible for their life. Gupta et al., (2007) further state that children born into wealthy or more financially sound circumstances have more advantages with meeting their needs. Children who start in a poor socioeconomic status are more likely to live in low-income neighborhoods and have poorer health outcomes. Additionally, although this is an issue in childhood, a cycle can begin where the child becomes an adult who repeats the cycle; lives in poor socioeconomic status, having children in that status, and having poor health conditions from lack of financial stability and being able to be seen by a health care provider. 

Another policy that can affect health and wealth is housing. Ortiz et al., (2018) argue that housing affordability promotes health when there are connections for affordable housing and health that are not already readily volunteered. Substandard housing can contribute to poor health if the housing is not equipped to keep a family warm or cold depending on the weather, lead poisoning, and stress, affecting one’s mental health (Ortiz et al., 2018). Moreover, if a neighborhood lacks opportunities for a population to be active by playing at a park, taking walks, or playing sports at a nearby court, this also can affect their health, tying in another connection to why housing policy ties into health policy. 


Fanea-Ivanovici, M., Pana, M.-C., Sacala, M. D., & Voicu, C. (2020). Measuring and Assessing the Wealth Influence on the Efficiency of the Health System through the Private Sector.  Engineering Economics, 31(4), 437–449.

Gupta, R. P., de Wit, M. L., & McKeown, D. (2007). The impact of poverty on the current and future health status of children. Paediatrics & child health, 12(8), 667–672.

Ortiz, S. E., & Johannes, B. L. (2018). Building the case for housing policy: Understanding public beliefs about housing affordability as a key social determinant of health. SSM – population health, 6, 63–71.[supanova_question]

A. Cite ONE technological improvement that originated outside of Europe that Europeans

A. Cite ONE technological improvement that originated outside of Europe that Europeans learned to use and explain how it helped them in their voyages of discovery.

Compass was originated in China and made its way through the Muslim Empires and Europe. The compass began significant during the sea voyages in navigating the direction of the boats. It became more dependable when sailors were not unable to see the stars to direct navigation.

B. Select ONE of the explorers above and briefly explain how his voyage(s) affected the sponsoring empire beyond the impact listed in the chart.

Columbus’ voyages brought more conquerors to go to the Americans that made Spain adopt a mercantilism economy. This allowed them gain access to raw materials like corn, tobacco, and peppers. Because Columbus is from Europe and in Europe, they have the mercantilism system. Having the conquerors going to the Americans made it easier for them to get influence by the system.

C. Select ONE explorer not selected in part B and briefly explain how his voyage(s) affected the indigenous population of the Americas.

Pedro Cabral’s voyages and explorations had a significant impact on the Brazil civilizations. The Amerindians and Tupiniquim still lived in the stone-age as fishermen and hunter-gatherers. When the Cabral came, he introduced Christianity and new tools changed the view of the Natives.[supanova_question]

This is what the student had to write about. I feel it

This is what the student had to write about. I feel it is important to understand the required work to understand how to write a reply.

Do not write about the topic below.

As your lecture states for his week, Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) seeks to determine the best ways for treating the population by using scientific principles to analyze and compare different options and interventions. The basic goal of comparative effectiveness research is to produce better information about the care benefits, costs, and risks of treatment options – so that a patient informed decision can be made. Funding the right treatments allows for better treatments. “More clarity about which treatments work best—and for which types of patients—could create potential for shifting money to those interventions and away from less effective treatments” (Altarum, 2020, para. 3). For this week’s discussion, please review this article:

Read this PDF article – Altarum. (2020). Comparative effectiveness research: Foundational to healthcare value efforts. (Links to an external site.)

Once article has been read, use the prompts below in addressing it:

Research a current event in which comparative effectiveness research is used, and provide context for the event being described.

What factors were taken into consideration? i.e. cost, nonfinancial incentives, trial or effective treatment, etc.

Was there enough information or a lack of information when trying to make a decision for treatment?

Was there enough financial investment in research to ensure its effectiveness?

How does comparative effectiveness research help in making an informed decision?

What did you learn from this exercise?

Now that you have thoroughly gone through what the student had to write about reply to the student

Jennifer Fryer

YesterdaySep 6 at 11:32am

Manage Discussion Entry

High blood pressure is a health condition that is an increasing problem worldwide (Mills et al., 2018). Given the connection between cardiovascular disease and premature death, there are concerns about why the numbers continue to increase. Treatment with medications and lifestyle modifications has been shown to reduce blood pressure and risk one’s cardiovascular disease risk in randomized clinical trials (Mills et al., 2018). This study aimed to assess the comparative effectiveness of eight implementation strategies for blood pressure control in adults with hypertension. 

The trials were randomized and lasted at least six months and up to five years which compared implementation strategies versus the routine care on reducing blood pressure in adults with hypertension (Mills et al., 2018). In this study, trials were divided into eight implementation strategies: 1. Health coaching, 2. Home BP monitoring, 3. Provider training, 4. Audit and feedback, 5. Electronic decision support systems; and three categories that had multilevel strategies such as 6. multilevel strategies without team-based care, 7. team-based care with physicians titrating medications, and 8. team-based care with non-physician provider titrating medications. 

This study did lack data as it was limited to low and middle-income countries and had few trials of some implementations strategies. With that said, the study showed that multilevel and multi-component strategies followed by patient-level strategies were the most effective in controlling blood pressure in patients who have hypertension and should be used to improve hypertension for patients. It does appear that there was enough financial investment in the research and was supported in part by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (Mills et al., 2018). 

Comparative effectiveness research helps providers have up-to-date information that can be used with their patients when making decisions for their care. In the case of blood pressure and the effects of not controlling it, it gives the provider and patient strategies to take ownership over the most effective way to treat the patient’s blood pressure. This is especially important for the patient because they need to do it independently with the guidance of their health care provider. Such as reducing salt intake, eating healthier, and being more active will benefit the patient and work to support the medication the physician prescribes. Additionally, knowing that these three areas can also eliminate high blood pressure shows the effectiveness for the patient with different options in controlling their blood pressure. 

Comparative effectiveness research provides useful and insightful information for all stakeholders: patients, physicians, and the community who are trying to lower a health condition in subgroups of populations. 


Altarum. (2020). Comparative effectiveness research: Foundational to healthcare value efforts. https:/ (Links to an external site.)/

Mills, K. T., Obst, K. M., Shen, W., Molina, S., Zhang, H. J., He, H., Cooper, L. A., & He, J. (2018). Comparative Effectiveness of Implementation Strategies for Blood Pressure Control in Hypertensive Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Annals of internal medicine, 168(2), 110–120.


Introduction The gaps in planning for a pandemic are not unique to

Writing Assignment Help Introduction

The gaps in planning for a pandemic are not unique to the United States and have been reported around the world.

Little did we know how this global pandemic would impact everything from the world economy, to our social rituals, to how we work and play.  Many questions have been raised about responsibilities for preparation, information, and how we care for our most vulnerable citizens.

As the world awaits the “return to normal” or what the “new normal” will look like, the healthcare industry has been greatly impacted.  Many organizations have needed to reallocate resources while trying to decrease expenses due to the ever-changing environment and information. The financial impact on healthcare has been great with the need to expand care capacity for respiratory patients while decreasing non-essential services which are a significant source of income.  Without this income stream, hospitals have been faced with the need to downsize and furlough employees thus impacting the local economy.   

With the enhanced focus on Covid patients, many patients with chronic conditions have stayed away from healthcare organizations potentially to their detriment.

The Joint Commission and other regulators have decreased their surveys and allowed flexibility with many of the regulations due to this healthcare crisis but what will it look like when everything starts up again.

No one knows.


Watch TED talk – What healthcare will look like in 2020 | Stephen Klasko | TEDxPhiladelphia

Read news article – It’s time to care for non-COVID patients as pandemic lessens, NY doctors say By Carl Campanile

300 words minimum [supanova_question]

410 week 1 3 topic It is necessary for an RN-BSN-prepared nurse

410 week 1 3 topic

It is necessary for an RN-BSN-prepared nurse to demonstrate an enhanced understanding of the pathophysiological processes of disease, the clinical manifestations and treatment protocols, and how they affect clients across the life span.

Evaluate the Health History and Medical Information for Mrs. J., presented below.

Based on this information, formulate a conclusion based on your evaluation, and complete the Critical Thinking Essay assignment, as instructed below.

Health History and Medical Information

Health History

Mrs. J. is a 63-year-old married woman who has a history of hypertension, chronic heart failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Despite requiring 2L of oxygen/nasal cannula at home during activity, she continues to smoke two packs of cigarettes a day and has done so for 40 years. Three days ago, she had sudden onset of flu-like symptoms including fever, productive cough, nausea, and malaise. Over the past 3 days, she has been unable to perform ADLs and has required assistance in walking short distances. She has not taken her antihypertensive medications or medications to control her heart failure for 3 days. Today, she has been admitted to the hospital ICU with acute decompensated heart failure and acute exacerbation of COPD.

Subjective Data

Is very anxious and asks whether she is going to die.

Denies pain but says she feels like she cannot get enough air.

Says her heart feels like it is “running away.”

Reports that she is exhausted and cannot eat or drink by herself.

Objective Data

Height 175 cm; Weight 95.5kg.

Vital signs: T 37.6C, HR 118 and irregular, RR 34, BP 90/58.

Cardiovascular: Distant S1, S2, S3 present; PMI at sixth ICS and faint: all peripheral pulses are 1+; bilateral jugular vein distention; initial cardiac monitoring indicates a ventricular rate of 132 and atrial fibrillation.

Respiratory: Pulmonary crackles; decreased breath sounds right lower lobe; coughing frothy blood-tinged sputum; SpO2 82%.

Gastrointestinal: BS present: hepatomegaly 4cm below costal margin.


The following medications administered through drug therapy control her symptoms:

IV furosemide (Lasix)

Enalapril (Vasotec)

Metoprolol (Lopressor)

IV morphine sulphate (Morphine)

Inhaled short-acting bronchodilator (ProAir HFA)

Inhaled corticosteroid (Flovent HFA)

Oxygen delivered at 2L/ NC

Critical Thinking Essay

In 750-1,000 words, critically evaluate Mrs. J.’s situation. Include the following:

Describe the clinical manifestations present in Mrs. J.

Discuss whether the nursing interventions at the time of her admissions were appropriate for Mrs. J. and explain the rationale for each of the medications listed.

Describe four cardiovascular conditions that may lead to heart failure and what can be done in the form of medical/nursing interventions to prevent the development of heart failure in each condition.

Taking into consideration the fact that most mature adults take at least six prescription medications, discuss four nursing interventions that can help prevent problems caused by multiple drug interactions in older patients. Provide a rationale for each of the interventions you recommend.

Provide a health promotion and restoration teaching plan for Mrs. J., including multidisciplinary resources for rehabilitation and any modifications that may be needed. Explain how the rehabilitation resources and modifications will assist the patients’ transition to independence.

Describe a method for providing education for Mrs. J. regarding medications that need to be maintained to prevent future hospital admission. Provide rationale.

Outline COPD triggers that can increase exacerbation frequency, resulting in return visits. Considering Mrs. J.’s current and long-term tobacco use, discuss what options for smoking cessation should be offered.

You are required to cite to a minimum of two sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and relevant to nursing practice.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.[supanova_question]

410 week 2 materials Read Chapter 2 in Pathophysiology: Clinical Applications for

410 week 2 materials

Read Chapter 2 in Pathophysiology: Clinical Applications for Client Health.


Read “Advanced CT for Diagnosis of Seizure-Related Stroke Mimics,” by Austein, Huhndorf, Meyne, Laufs, Jansen, and Lindner, from European Radiology (2018).


Read “Long-Term Effects on Survival After a 1-Year Multifactorial Vascular Risk Factor Intervention After Stroke or TIA: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial, a 7-Year Follow-Up Study,” by Hagberg et al., from Vascular Health and Risk Management (2019).


Read “‘This Is Our Life Now. Our New Normal’: A Qualitative Study of the Unmet Needs of Carers of Stroke Survivors,” by Denham et al., from PLOS ONE (2019).


Read “This Is Not Only About Memory: A Systematic Review on Neuropsychology Heterogeneity in Alzheimer’s Disease,” by Martorelli, Sudo, and Charchat-Fichman, from Psychology and Neuroscience (2019).


Read “The Relationship Between Thyroid Function and Cerebral Blood Flow in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease,” from PLOS ONE (2019).


Read “Suicidal Ideation and Traumatic Exposure Should Not Be Neglected in Epileptic Patients: A Multidimensional Comparison of the Psychiatric Profile of Patients Suffering From Epilepsy and Patients Suffering From Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures,” by Guillen et al., from Frontiers in Psychiatry (2019).


Read “Poststroke Seizure: Optimizing Its Management,” by Michael Y Xu, from Stroke and Vascular Neurology (2019).


Read “Antibiotics, Gut Microbiota, and Alzheimer’s Disease,” by Angelucci, Cechova, Amlerova and Hort, from Journal of Neuroinflammation (2019).


Read “Experimental Necrotizing Enterocolitis Induces Neuroinflammation in the Neonatal Brain,” by Biouss et al., from Journal of Neuroinflammation (2019).