SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 2 Introduction In understanding social psychology, various concepts are considered



In understanding social psychology, various concepts are considered when relating human behavior within a particular social context. Several theoretical discussions based on findings from prominent sociologists tend to explain how social context impacts human behavior. The researchers have gone out of their way in studying the aspect of social cognition about the understanding of human behavior and Attitude based on the social construct of social identity. Thus, the paper will explore the social-psychological background while analyzing the mentioned concepts related to behavioral psychology. Also, acknowledge the social psychologists with their theoretical explanation and findings based on the social psychology field and further highlight the principles of social identity, group identity aggression, Attitude, and social cognition; and analyze their application in social psychology.

The background and concepts of social psychology

Social psychology analyzes human problems and behavior using scientific approaches by evaluating the effect of social perception, social identity, attitudes, and aggression on human decisions. The first experiment on social psychology was conducted by Norman Triplett during the 19th century analyzing the level of performance an individual can achieve through working with groups or as a single individual.


The findings concluded that the level of performance is increased while performing group tasks compared to working alone. The concept of modern social psychology was later expanded during the 20th century by Kurt Lewis. He developed field theories and research based on group forces and human behavior in organizational setup. Kurt Lewin concluded his findings on experimenting with human behavior in a group context that the social environment mainly impacts human behavior such as prejudice. For instance, employees in different organizations develop a certain organizational behavior affected by the corporate culture, forcing them to behave differently from other organizations. Such aspects explain how the social environment affects an individual’s wellbeing, and attitudes and social perception impact behavioral factors.

The theories and theorists are credited for influencing the development of social psychology.

The social cognitive theory was developed by Albert Bandura that explains how individuals learn from observing and understanding the consequences of a specific behavior in their social surroundings. Therefore, Bandura purports that an individual


could engage in a particular behavior by understanding the consequences after learning various behavioral events and their values.

Moreover, the sociocultural theory by Lev Vygotsky is among the theoretical perspectives that explain the influence of social surroundings through cultural influence. According to Zittoun & Baucal, individuals adapt cultural values due to ethnicity or a group that differently identifies them from other groups. For instance, children born in religious families tend to uphold their religious faith due to their parent’s or guardian’s faith.

The principles of social cognition, Attitude and aggression, social identity, and group behavior, and their application in social psychology

Aggression is cultivated under two principles: emotional aggression due to anger or instrumental aggression driven by motives. For example, married couples fighting or insulting each other due to infidelity is emotional aggression. At the same time, robbers stealing from a bank to gain wealth are conducted strategically with motives thus recognized as instrumental aggression. On the other hand, Attitude tends to express the idea relating to the mood and feelings, either positive or negative, based on the affective component that indicates the sense or the effective power on a specific behavior.


The concept of Attitude and aggression are used in social psychology in understanding human reactions based on social influence and perception and more so understanding the human decision impacted by social judgment.

Moreover, social identity is characterized by social identification, categorization, and comparison through which people are grouped and socially recognized based on their shared or similar characteristics. Thus, people belonging to a particular group tend to behave in a way that every person is expected to while exalting their group, comparing their qualities from the other groups. Group behavior is built under the social identity pillars with the elements of social cohesiveness, defined as the willingness of group members to adapt to the group culture and maintain teamwork. Additionally, the principles of adjusting to change and conformity are for the interest of the group. The concept of social identity and group behavior is applied to study organizational culture and employee behavior in workplaces and analyze individuals’ behavior in various socio-cultural environments.


Further, social cognition principles regard the social perception and individual perception influencing a specific action, the effect of a particular situation on behavior, and the social influence through observing and learning various behavioral events. The concept of social cognition is applied in social learning, whereas individuals develop cognitive understanding through observation and experiencing a series of certain events.[supanova_question]

Prompt 1. Lee and George argue that the prohibition against killing persons

Prompt 1. Lee and George argue that the prohibition against killing persons (as opposed to humans) cannot be interpreted in a way that would save the moral permissibility of abortion. Explain their argument and either: 1) Offer an original objection against their argument or 2) Defend their argument against a potential objection in an original way. Your objection or defense can be about one particular premise used in the aforementioned arguments or objections (in fact, it probably should be this narrowly focused), just make sure that you tie it in to the bigger picture. Once you have made your original argument, it’s a good idea to consider potential criticisms (of your argument specifically) and respond to them.

Final Draft Essay

Whether support abortion and concede its moral permissibility depends on someone’s culture, local laws and applied theories. Lee and George argue that the prohibition against killing persons (as opposed to humans) cannot be interpreted in a way that would save the moral permissibility of abortion. However, I insist that fetus before birth is not a person and the moral permissibility can be justified due to moral status and legal status of fetus and feminism perspective. Firstly, fetus lacks of moral status to be defined as persons. A person is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, conciousness or self-conciousness, and being a part of a culturally established form of social relations such as kinship, ownership of property, or legal responsibility. Secondly, in local laws (Mainland China), only postnatal humans are defined as natrual persons. Natural persons don’t need to depend on a specific subject to live, only a specific act of caring. For example, infants can survive under care of nurses. However, embryo cannot survive once separated from the mother. Thirdly, from feminism perspective, women have the right to deal with their bodies. Whether to choose abortion after pregnancy should also be decided by women based on their physical condition, economic status, lifestyle and other factors, and after consultation with family members and friends, refusal to be enacted by the state to intervene, and against excessive involvement of parents or husbands in the decision. Personal decision which does not harm other people is morally permissible (embryos are not person by law).

The argument of Lee and George is based on two premises. First, abortion is the intentional killing of a human being. Second, the intentional killing of a human being is morally impermissible. Therefore, abortion is morally impermissible. Others refute that first, it is wrong to kill persons. Second, fetus are humans, but not persons. Therefore, it is not clear that it is wrong to kill fetus. Lee and George apply physicalism to argue that an embryo is a person. Physicalism is the claim that the mind is not a spiritual entity but a physical one. They also claim that if your self is identified with your mind and your mind is identified with a part of your body, then you are your body. Since the fetus has the same body it will have when it is mature – it will develop and grow, but it is still the same body – then if it will be a person, it already is a person. Therefore, the prohibition against killing persons (as opposed to humans) cannot be interpreted in a way that would save the moral permissibility of abortion.

I argue that the state of being a person is dynamic and inconsistent. I as a child is different from I as an adult. The most important thing is that the fetus has the potential to be a person yet it is not a person now. If the embryo is aborted, it can never be a person. Therefore, we cannot treat fetus as a typical person. Margaret Olivia Little also points out that early human life is “respect-worthy”, but this is not to say that it has the full blown moral status of developed human life. The fetus is a distinctive, relatively unique moral category, in which its status is close but not identical with that of a typical adult.

Additionally, due to social, economic and political concerns, perhaps also are influenced by views like Little, laws in my country do not grant fetus a identity as person. In medicine, embryo and fetus actually are two different concepts. Embryo refers to the period between fertilized and before 9 weeks. Fetus refer to the state of fertilized egg after 9 weeks. Therefore, the unborn child is a changing biological forms. People all agree that postnatal infants are living human beings. However, there is no consensus on when it became a living human before then. what we can rely on are local laws, so I support the law that postnatal humans are defined as persons.

Futhermore, I am a woman. Naturally, I would favor opinions that care about and defend my rights. Since by law the fetus is not a person, then whether to abort it is pure personal choice. “Deciding whether to continue a pregnancy isn’t like being asked to write a check for charity, however large; it’s an enormous undertaking that has reverberations for an entire lifetime”. The point is that preganacy, giving birth and raise someone up are risky and uncertain about the payback. Mother and fetus are in a competitive relationship, not a symbiotic relationship. It sacrfice mother’s health, career and freedom in some degree and this baby ties to her for at least next 18 years. For such a decision that would affect the mother so deeply, we should give her the right to make the most proper decision for her.

However, someone may refute that if you become pregnant, you should be responsible for it and take the consequences. This objection overlooks conditions of involuntary pregnancy such as pregnant by being raped. Additionally, if the condition of the mother does not allow her to properly raise a child, then becoming into existence is just a life long tortue for the mother and that child. In extreme cases, if a child is destined to be abandoned at birth and die of starvation and cold.Which method of death is better?Die unconsciously as an embryo or die in fear and pain as an infant?

In a nut shell, I think that Lee and Geroge overemphasize the rights of the fetus and overlook the rights of the mother. Because the fetus lacks of moral status and is not defined as person by law, the abortion becomes mothers’ personal choice which do not affect other people. The prohibition against killing persons (as opposed to humans) can be interpreted in a way that would save the moral permissibility of abortion.[supanova_question]




Dissertation: How Depression Can Affect Self-Confidence And Behavior In Young People

Claudia Baigorri

University of West London

Dissertation: How Depression Can Affect Self-Confidence and Behaviour In Young People


Depression is a disorder in mood, causing a continuous sadness feeling and affects one’s behavior, thinking, and feelings. It usually exhibits itself through a lack of interest in normal activities such as working, eating, socializing with friends and family, and persistent low moods. People suffering from depression usually tend to self-isolate themselves from other people and appear deep in thoughts (Morina, Koerssen & Pollet, 2016). This makes them lose interest in the normal life activity and even things considered to bring amusement. Victims develop irritability syndrome at the critical levels of depression that makes them easily irritated at a slight provocation. Some of them develop anger outbursts, suicidal ideation, violence, and withdrawal. The problem of depression affects millions of people globally. Also, billions of people are a risk of developing depression at least once in their lives. Statistics show that nearly 20% of the global population suffers from depression, with at least 6% experiencing a high level of depression. Also, more than half of the global population are predisposed to depressive episodes at least once in their lifetime. It is a condition that is linked to cognitive impairment, psychological disability, and increased mortality. It is difficult to assess and diagnose depressive symptoms because of etiological variations (Otte et al., 2016). People with major depressive disorders (MDD) commonly exhibit social impairment such as anger outbursts. This makes it a critical concern in healthcare. Nurses and other healthcare professionals have a critical role in reducing depression and assisting depressed individuals to recover from the episodes. For this to be achieved, there is a need for robust research on the impact of depression on young people to identify people suffering from depression and the effects of depression on young people’s behavior and self-esteem. This paper investigates how depression can affect self-confidence and behavior among young people.

Background to Research Topic Area

Depression is among the health conditions affecting a significant percentage of the global population. A wide range of factors can cause depression. There is no specific physiological explanation for depression. However, anything that affects mental health and normal brain functioning could lead to depression. This includes the effects of the financial, environmental, genetic, and cultural aspects of a person. Depression is linked to the family of the victim due to genetic factors. Studies show that genetic factors on depression are about 30 to 40 percent (Otte et al., 2016). Therefore, if parents have MDD, there is a likelihood that their children will be susceptible to MDD. Depression also has socio-environmental implications. It may contribute to various social impairments such as violence, marital problems, divorce, little social interactions, etc. This is usually the reason why psychosocial interventions are sought in clinical psychiatrists. The critical indicators of depression include persistent sadness, emptiness, and hopelessness. Another indication is angry outbursts, irritations, and frustrations. Lack of pleasure in usual activities and interactions, insomnia, or excessive sleeping can also indicate depression. Others are reduced appetite, memory loss, or slow thinking, among others.

Healthcare providers have vital roles in developing effective interventions to assist patients suffering from depression. First, a client who has a high risk of depression requires continuous supervision in a safe environment. One of the nursing interventions is to identify precautions that are needed for levels of suicide risk. If the level is high, the patient would require hospitalization. If the risk is low, the patient can be left to be supervised by family members (Baldursdottir et al., 2017). Secondly, if the patient feels hopeless or worthless or isolates himself/herself, the nursing intervention would be to contact his/her family, arrange counseling sessions, and activate links to self-help groups. Another nursing intervention is encouraging depressive disorder patients to express their feelings, such as anger, to get alternative ways of handling such emotions. Patient-centered care is essential in managing depression both in outpatient and inpatient care. An interdisciplinary team that is needed for holistic patient-centered care for cases of depression includes a primary care physician, physical therapist, home care nurse, and occupational therapist. Family members are also included in the interdisciplinary team since they provide support and outpatient services, including counseling and close monitoring of the MDD patient (Otte et al., 2016).

Aims and Objectives

My main aim in this study will be to delve deep into research on how depression influences self-esteem (self-confidence) and behavior in young people. The specific objective is to evaluate how depression influences the self-esteem of young people. The other specific objective will be to evaluate how depression influences the behavior of young people. The study will include a deep understanding of these 39 interviewees, exploring self-esteem, behaviour, and their lives in general. (See, 39 people are interviewed on depression.)


The study hypothesizes that depression lowers the self-esteem of young people. It also hypothesizes that depression causes changes in the behaviors of young people leading to behavioral disorders.

Method (1300)


This research will utilize qualitative design to gather opinionative information about how depression has affected the self-esteem and behavior of young people. I will use Healthtalk interviews to conduct this research (See: Thus, it will involve a secondary analysis of data already gathered. All information from this website has been ethically approved.


Since the study is based on secondary data analysis, it will review data from 20 young people from the Healthtalk interviews website who have experienced depression who will make up the participants for the study. This study will analyze interviews with participants from different backgrounds to make the study generalizable. The participants will consist of both females and males aged between 16 and 21 years. The participants whose data will be reviewed will be selected if only they are conversant with the concept of depression and its potential impacts on behavior and self-esteem. The other inclusion criterion would be whether the participants have experienced depression at least once in their lifetime. Those who do not meet the inclusion criteria will be excluded from the research. The participant’s data will be selected using purposive sampling since the study focuses on analyzing already existing interviews with the participants.


The study will use the transcripts of interviews to collect data. The interviews were already performed in the primary research that used the interview to gather information about the participants’ experience with depression. Therefore, the materials that the research team will need include the transcript of the interview from the Healthtalk interviews website, computer, and writing materials, including pieces of paper, pencils for writing, and rubbers for erasing if they make a mistake in writing or wish to update their answers. Our research team will use these transcripts to obtain a pattern of responses that the participants gave on the interviews. The computer will be used to type the patterns of responses the team obtains from the transcripts of interviews, while the writing materials will be used in case the research team wishes to write down the patterns of responses they obtain from the transcripts.


The first step in conducting this research will be identifying the data source that will be used for analysis. The data will be collected from transcripts of interviews available on the Healthtalk website (see Since the study is based on secondary data analysis, the research team must get approval first before accessing this data. This would require completing the ethical approval form and submit it to the relevant authority. This form will indicate the purpose of the research, how it will be conducted, and the data source that will be used. Once our research team gets ethical approval, it will also need permission to access the data source from Healthtalk website administrators. Also, the team will need to inform the administrators about the purpose of the research and how it will be conducted. The study will ensure all ethical considerations are met before the study. The study will maintain the participants’ information confidential and protect them from risks and dangers. The team will then evaluate the source of data that provides adequate and valid information that aligns with the study objective. The research team will spend ample time studying and learn where the data sets originated from. This will enable them to first review the questions asked in the primary research to familiarize themselves with the questions used in the interview process. It will also enable them to determine the aim for which the primary researchers conducted these interviews and the nature of the participants they recruited. The team will use purposive sampling to select responses that align with the study purpose, which is to determine the impact of depression on the behavior and self-esteem of young people. Therefore, any interview transcript that does not have information related to this purpose will be excluded. The team will evaluate the responses to determine their patterns and develop comprehensive information from the analysis. Since these questions will guide the team to evaluate the patterns of responses, they would need to carefully examine each response to determine the similarities and differences of responses based on a particular question. These questions and the responses are written on the Healthtalk interviews website. To successfully accomplish secondary data analysis, the research team will need to learn how the data sets were developed. The obtained will then be interpreted to provide meaningful information.

Data collection

Data collection will be done through the analysis of secondary data on transcript interviews with participants. These transcripts of interviews will be obtained from the Healthtalk interviews website (see The research team will evaluate all questions asked during the interviews and the responses that the participants provided. They will then obtain information from different responses based on specific questions. They will record this information and evaluate it to obtain the patterns of responses, including the similarities and differences between the participant’s responses. The information obtained will then be classified accordingly to give comprehensive information that will be used to test the hypothesis. Secondary data analysis is selected as a data collection method since it is cost-effective and saves on time that would otherwise be used to collect raw data. It also provides well-organized data that can be extracted and analyzed easily.


The data obtained from the transcripts of interviews will be analyzed using the thematic analysis method. This method effectively analyzes qualitative data since it can be used to interpret information to provide a comprehensive meaning (Hammarberg, Kirkman & de Lacey, 2016). It also allows researchers to undertake an in-depth analysis of qualitative data and get substantial information. Besides, it provides different ways of interpreting collected data. Therefore, it will be used to interpret the patterns of responses obtained from analyzing transcripts of interviews to provide comprehensive information that can be used to conclude. While analyzing the data through a thematic method, I will identify the similarities and differences presented from the transcripts based on the questions asked during the interview. I will then code the data, organize and compile it to derive meaningful information out of it.

Ethical Considerations

I will ensure that I adhere to all the ethical considerations involved in my research. For instance, it has sought ethical approval before the study is carried out by completing the ethical approval form. This approval must be provided before I collect data. Besides, I will ensure that I maintain accurate records of the methods I will use in conducting the research and the results I will obtain. I will also conduct my research in strict adherence to the legal obligations and the standards of the professional and funding bodies involved in my research. I would also ensure that I regularly update all documents and backup data I use during my research. I would further ensure that I keep personal information anonymous. I will secure any classified information in a password-protected folder. I will also use the data only for the purpose it was meant for. Once I complete using the data, I will dispose of it properly based on the collaborators, funders, ethical and legal requirements.


There are no risks involved in the research since the data has already been gathered. Also, there is no risk involved in analyzing the secondary data. However, the access and use of information from a privately developed website require permission to be given by the administrative host. In this research, the administrative host from the website has been contacted to check that they have no objection. This website is used for education purposes; thus, we do not anticipate a negative response. It is possible that the researcher may experience some light emotional discomfort from working with this data. However, the researcher will keep in close contact with her supervisor to ensure her wellbeing is maintained.


Appendix 1.

Darren 21 years old

I think it [start of depression] was sort of a gradual process, it was, I mean going through school and everything I went through in there, like you know going from all the top classes to the bottom, and like I said the bullying, and I mean even like by my friends you know? Occasionally being bullied and that. All the side effects of the tablets, you know, like the acne and the shaking and the boils and the, you know everything, I got bullied for all that and, it all affects, all affected and like, what’s the word? All affected my…


Self confidence?


Yeah, confidence yeah. It all affected my self confidence. It was just gradual through school and through college as well. You know up until that point when I, with my friend you know, done that to me and then meeting that girl, and you know it all just kept going wrong. Oh, so I didn’t really live a good life.

Appendix 2.

Joanna 20 years old

I couldn’t see myself for who I was, so I’d walk past a shop window or something, and I wouldn’t recognise who it was. And so I sort of didn’t have a mental image of who I was, what I stood for, you know, sort of like this is me, I look like this and I’m like this, and I like this, and I remember used to having to make it up when I was at school, when I was at primary school. You know they sort of ask all these questions like, and you have to write your name and then you have to write what lessons you like, and which lessons you don’t like, and I remember just making it up, ‘cos I didn’t know what I liked and what I didn’t like.


I felt that everyone else knew who they were and knew what they were about and, and stuff, but that I didn’t. I’m sure that other people had feelings like that but, it was sort of, you know I went through a long stage of thinking I was adopted, to a stage where I actually requested my birth certificate and looked at it because I was convinced for a long time that I was adopted that you know this whole life can’t be quite true. And just… it’s, it’s quite hard to explain now sort of, because I’m not, I’m not there now. But it was just sort of like, just sort of like trying to discover who you are, but not really being able to get anywhere. I think I remember describing it once, it was like trying to, like say life is like a jigsaw puzzle, I was like trying to put it together but I just didn’t have all the pieces. It was like desperately searching for those pieces without even knowing what those pieces are meant to be.

Appendix 3.

Lea 17 years old

I used to think I was sort of worthless, and people, people would tell me, “Oh you’re not worthless, you’re not worthless, shut up.” Sort of thing, but that will, that would make me think well they’re just saying that, they’re not really meaning it. You, if you really meant it then you would sort of do something about it, instead of just saying oh shut up, sort of “you’re not worthless”, sort of thing. But I, I talked to, well like my counsellor with it and he would be like, “Well if they didn’t think you were worthless,” or “if they did think you were worthless, why would they need to sort of say stuff to you to make you feel better?” And I’d be like, “Well, they could be just saying it.” And it would, sort of I’d go around in that sort of circle until I sort of realised that maybe yeah, if they were trying to, if they really thought I was worthless then, they wouldn’t care at all, they’d be like, “pha and?”, sort of cast me asunder sort of thing. But I do, I do think from time to time people care but I, sort of, sometimes I forget that and I’ll be like, and… you don’t care, sort of thing. But, I’m getting better at it, I’m getting better at it. I’m, I’m managing to sort of like put all these things together and be like, hey now I’m happy.

Appendix 4.

Holly 18 years old

I think it’s [self-esteem] always been quite low, again because I mentioned my sister, and obviously since she’s you know, she’s very articulate and she’s very clever, I always felt, ‘cos our family is, it’s quite an intelligent family, and I didn’t know at the time because of the dyslexia I couldn’t reach the goals and so, whereas they were getting all the good grades, I wasn’t. And that, I think that initially started the self esteem problems ‘cos I felt I wasn’t as good as the rest of the family and I was sort of the black sheep, I was the one that, that wasn’t as able, sort of with GCSE’s I think my cousin got, was in the newspaper for six A stars and five A’s. And I got all D’s and things, so obviously there’s … The same, oh in fact on the same day where I finished, took my sixth form because they said obviously you can’t catch up, so you may as well leave, on the same day as I left that school, my sister got, at the college was awarded Learner of the Year for the whole of [county name], so obviously there’s, there’s a bit of a , you know, it’s not that difficult to notice there’s a difference between us. So I think that started the self esteem problems, and the things sort of like with friends sort, when they were going out and they were inviting me out sometimes it was they were clothes shopping, ‘cos I’m a larger size so I couldn’t buy the same clothes as they were doing, at the same shops so I thought well I’m not going to go to things like that, and that didn’t help my self esteem either.

Appendix 5.

Sarah 17 years old

The way I think now, it’s, it’s so drummed into my head that I can’t, I can’t change, I can change but I can’t change at the present moment like I’ve got so many like negative connotations to things and you just, it’s really difficult to change that, you’ve got to sort of force yourself out of the cycle and forcing yourself is the hardest bit.


It’s really, really difficult to do that, especially after such a long time of thinking in certain ways. It definitely makes it more difficult because I’m used to thinking like this and now all of a sudden somebody says it’s not normal, it’s not how you’re meant to be and that’s really, I don’t like it. But there is something, it’s not just me, it’s not, everybody doesn’t act like me, not everybody thinks the same as me, I, it’s hard to know that you don’t function the same way as other people do. It’s harder for you to get along with people, it’s hard for you to make friends and trust people, and just do things everybody else does every day.

Appendix 6.

Ruby 27 years old

I read somewhere, quite a few places actually, that when you come out of addiction you’re the same age mentally that you went in. So when I was 18, 19 I was still technically a 12-year-old, so that 6 year period in adolescence where you learn to interact socially, oh no, I’d have my face down a toilet, I didn’t have a clue. Like you know so I was still that 12-year-old who didn’t have a clue what was going on, when I was 18, 19 when I should’ve been having the time of my life and stuff, I was sort of 6 years behind because all my growing up had taken place in public toilets and sweet shops and stuff, you know and like lonely, lonely times in sweet shops and stuff you know, not the sort hanging out with friends or anything like that. So I did find it, incredibly, because you know ‘cos at the end of the day I was the equivalent of a 12-year-old trying to articulate a very adult problem.

Appendix 7.

Jennie 19 years old

I want everything to be done right, and to my best ability, and like I said I got all A’s and A stars at GCSE, and then all A’s at A’ level. And just doing everything I do I want it to be done to the best of my potential, and I put a lot of pressure on myself to do that, and just with everything like the counsellor used to say to me, “You, you see failure as a bad thing, whereas sometimes failure can be a positive thing.” Like last year when obviously I didn’t enjoy, like my course, I saw that as a failure whereas she saw that as a positive thing because it gave me a chance to rethink and have another chance, whereas I, that was like the end of my world for that moment in time, because I’d failed and everything’s got to be like successful and an achievement and like done 100%.


I just feel like as well my little brother, like I always said I want to have independence so I can look after him, and ‘cos I’ve not got that independence it’s failing, and they’re like, “No it’s not, you’re 18, 17, 18, how can you be independent at 17, 18. You’ve still got to be a child for your parents, and they’re not going to see that as a failing because if you, like if you’re going to university and it’ll give them opportunities in the future for you to look after him, so it’s not a failing. You are doing something successful at the end of the day.”


But I mean I still am a perfectionist, I mean my Uni work like I will do it always to the best, and sometimes it does get on top of me like, I’m stressed because I know I’ve got four assignments before Christmas, and I want to get them done and, so I still have that, but I have a more, when I do get stressed instead of like it leading to being depressed sort of look at it more positive and find something else to do.

Appendix 8.

Emma-Jane 20 years old

I do have no kind of belief in my own ability, my own kind of worth, like I am capable, I am really capable of academic achievement, but I still I didn’t believe it. And like I’ve got loads, I’ve got loads of groups of friends, if you write it down on paper what’s like my life is like, like you know, where I’m from, the grades I’ve got, things like that, I look like everything should be fine. But at the same time I felt that I just couldn’t live up to that ideal. I couldn’t live up to that point like that, this bubble that, this kind of fictional person that to me seemed completely separate from me, that everyone kind of looked at and sort of like expected so much of. I just, I couldn’t, I didn’t feel that I would be able to match that, and that I was worthless and that I just couldn’t like I couldn’t like, my parents and like my teachers all kind of like, “You’re going to go far,” and all this kind of thing, which is lovely to hear that, that you know people believe in you, but at the same time it was that pressure that I think also kind of sent me down because like I was just kind of like “I can’t do this, I, there’s no way I’m gonna be able, I’m gonna let me down, they’re gonna be angry at me, they’re gonna be disappointed in me, they’re gonna be this, this, this.” And then that would send me of into like a different thing.


Over sort of my second year of college, I remember being just a bad time, like to anyone that sort of knew me at the time, I would’ve seemed fine, I mean I was voted to like the bubbliest person in my college, but like behind that kind of façade of just being able to cope, and being able to kind of like handle everything and get everything done, and sort of still manage to like see people and do this, like everything behind it was just crashing. Like I felt really, really bad, and I felt bad for not telling people, but I, but because it was, I was restricted ‘cos I didn’t want to, it would go back to, I didn’t wanna burden them, I didn’t.


If I’m perfectly honest because both are sides of me, but I prefer the smiley side. I prefer the smiley side, I prefer that upbeat side but the downside is like is just, it’s just been there, it’s just what I’m used to. It’s kind of like it always has just been there and it always has like just been a part of who I am, what I do. All that kind of thing, and it is, it hasn’t been till like probably recently that I’ve kind of noticed the distinction between the two.

Appendix 9.

Sara 20 years old

When college started, university, everyone’s just known me to be a confident person, because once I left my old school behind it was just easy to move on and pretend like I’ve always been confident. But obviously it was kind of you know it was, it was actually worse than it was before, I wasn’t just feeling bad, it was I was doing things, to, make you know actually damaging me, so it was, it, yeah I got more confident I suppose in a way, but, I still even now I prefer doing things on my own.


But you know, I know when I was younger as well I was quite quiet, I am naturally a quiet person, I get, I like acting confident but the majority of the time I don’t feel very confident. So, you know I’ve become quite a good liar, it’s just not a great thin, I mean, I mean it’s not a great thing to admit, but I’m good at hiding like my real feelings. ‘Cos you know I can’t lie, really I’m a terrible liar, I couldn’t possibly steal something and then pretend like I hadn’t done it. I definitely, you know I’m definitely better at not being the real me, I can definitely hide the real me more now. So as a child I was probably quite quiet, and I was probably quite, I wore my heart on my sleeve, like if I was upset everyone would know it. And now it never happens like I wouldn’t, you know people, if they catch me on a really bad day I might be sitting there quite quietly going, “Go away, I just want to sit here on my own.” And I might, you know, that might be as far as it gets, but generally I’m not gonna, I don’t want to push my low mood onto everyone else ‘cos I know it’s quite contagious sometimes, if someone’s feeling sad I mean, they’ll make someone else feel sad, and it’s kind of, I don’t want to be the person that sets off a bit of a sob fest like sitting amongst a circle of friends, everyone started crying, and I was going, “No it’s okay.”  

Appendix 10.

Blondel 21 years old

Do you think depression’s affected your, your self confidence?


Oh yeah definitely. Definitely. I wouldn’t say shy, but and, in turn I wouldn’t say I was ever really that outgoing, but I wasn’t afraid of meeting new people, I wasn’t afraid of letting you know, to be heard and to stand out, and you know to stand up for myself. If I didn’t necessarily agree with something I would’ve immediately said, “Well, you know I don’t agree with that,” and, you know and argued my point, and now I’m, I feel a bit like a doormat, since I’ve had the depression and I just feel like I’m being walked over and used, and even though I’m aware of other people’s behaviour and how I’m being treated, I haven’t necessarily got the confidence to stand up for myself anymore. And I just, I feel quite vulnerable. I think depression does make me feel quite vulnerable, and you know I’m quite low.

Appendix 11.

Sophie 17 years old

When I was younger I used to do loads of activities, I did dancing and went to scouts, beavers, cubs, I did loads of things, it’s just as life’s got, ‘cos I think as well, I used to be different as well because I used to be like a real girly, girly, but now as I’ve got older I feel insecure so I have to wear like tracksuits and stuff like that and just to make myself feel a bit safer and, a bit more confident. But at the minute I’m just trying to get out of that habit and just start being back to the way I was again.


So what did you used to be like? If you described your personality then?


Funny and bubbly and didn’t care what anybody said, and didn’t let anybody upset me, went to school everyday when I was in Year like 5, 6, 7. And then just leading a normal life really, going out with my friends after school, inviting them round for a sleepover, going out, chilling on the streets, just normal. But now life’s getting on, I’ve just changed. When I’m on a high my personality’s always been the same, I sit there and make them all laugh till they’re crying, they just basically have a laugh, but, I don’t know it’s just changed for some reason. Like I can’t see, I can’t see when it did change ‘cos I’ve always been up and down my whole life really.


Appendix 12.

Mandy 20 years old

ve always sort of as I said, sort of through half way through primary school I found it hard to make friends. I was okay till probably about year 4, so I should probably be I dunno, age 8, which was when a lot of stuff at home kicked off, which was when I, you know, started to feel different and everything started kicking in. So really you know I was, I was self harming from then, sort of the trivial things that people put it, but you know sort of the, I was very in inverted commas accident prone. That I was just you know, I was doing stuff to hurt myself rather than anything else, but it wasn’t picked up on till I was sort of 14 when I started cutting, so. So you know from age 8 onwards I was different as I would term it. You know?


What does accident prone mean?


I suffered a lot of injuries that I passed off as accidents mostly. You know sort of, you’d sort of throw yourself down the stairs with sort of at, I fell. Or you know you’d bang your hand against the wall and go, “Oh no, I just caught it.” You know, you just do stuff or you’d not stop yourself from doing stuff that you could see might happen, that you could easily prevent but you know it was all termed as accidents when I did them so.

Appendix 13.

Erika-Maye 17 years old

It’s addictive. It’s not one of these things you can just stop doing. I think people don’t understand that at all. It’s not as easy as, “Well I shouldn’t be doing that, so I won’t.” Because it’s difficult and it’s not attention seeking. It’s not one of these things that people do to, “Hey look at me I’ve got problems.” It’s, “I need a release; I need some control over something.” Because that’s what it’s for. And it’s not just me who feels that way, it was a discussion I was having at the unit the other day, it’s because everything else just feels so crazy, that way you’ve got some control over something. Even if it’s not exactly the most sensible thing in the world to be doing. A lot of the time, I mean I have attempted suicide in the past, but a lot of the time it’s not as a suicide attempt it’s I need some control. I need to let this out. And I really think that needs to be more understood. Obviously not, it it’s never gonna be one of these sociable, socially acceptable things which is perfectly understandable, but at the same time it should be understood that just because you’re doing that to yourself, you’re not doing it for attention.

It’s the general reaction to it. They completely ignored it at my old school ‘cos I wasn’t the only one that used to self harm. I used to do it in obvious places, but people used to do it blatantly obvious and that was cries for help and I was going to say I don’t see anything wrong with that, but I guess that doesn’t make much sense. I think that if someone’s having to cry out for help that loudly then something has to be done. I think even at the psychiatric unit they don’t really know how to deal with it, because when I came in the other week and my arms were covered in marks the reaction I got was, “Oh you shouldn’t be doing that it’s really bad for you,” [laughs]. That’s really helpful, why didn’t I think of that, thanks guys.” I think that people generally don’t understand mental health and they don’t understand self harm because of that, ‘cos it’s such a common thing and people do it in so many ways, and it’s just, I hate the fact that people associate it with attention seeking. It’s not, of course there are always going to be some people where they just want the, want the attention whatever the cost, but if someone’s honestly having such a difficult time that’s the only way they feel they can let out how they’re feeling, then they need help.

Appendix 14.

Sarah 17 years old

I was different and my friends were different and the majority, we were the minority in the school so we’d have like just loads of abuse hurled at us all the time like, dictionaries chucked at us and “Have you goth the time?” and, stupid stuff like that, and I remember one lad turned round to me and he goes, “Who lass, what’s that on your arm?” “Oh it’s nothing; it’s none of your business.” And he goes, he turns round and goes, “I wish my front lawn was like you and cut itself.” And I just looked at him, I just could not but laugh, just thought, “It’s great that you’ve got to pick on somebody for having something wrong with them. You wouldn’t pick on somebody in a wheelchair why pick on somebody that self harms. It’s the same thing. If anything you’ll probably gonna, I know self harm’s not, got nothing to do with killing yourself but like you’re going to drive them into doing it more aren’t you, you’re just making the problem worse” but…


People got really invasive and wanted to know constantly what was wrong. And the school would always phone my parents up and say, “Sarah’s got marks on her arms,” and as my parents would ask me, “Oh I hurt my arms, I hurt myself in woodwork ‘cos I’m clumsy.” So I always did have like bruises and that but I just said, “Oh I’m clumsy,” oh I’ve done this or I’ve done that, and they believed it.


That’s when it really started going wrong and I realised I could get away with it and I realised that nobody noticed how I felt and nobody really cares if like, it’s obvious what’s happening so why is nobody doing anything about it, so I thought why should I try to stop it if nobody else is gonna? Why should I care?

Appendix 15.

Sara 20 years old

Cutting didn’t start until I was about 15 although I do remember times in between that were occasionally maybe a scratch or two, or, purposely doing something which I know really hurt. So the cutting didn’t really get regular till I was doing my GCSEs when I was getting really stressed. And it was just, it was it was very regular like, it definitely started off first of all as a coping mechanism because it just became it’s own thing, I was just doing it for the sake of doing it, and then when I got upset I did it even more, so it was kind of at least a couple of times a week I’d cut, the majority of the time it was because I was upset, because I was upset all the time, but if there wasn’t, anything major then it was maybe you know maybe a couple more than usual, and that went on through the whole of GCSE’s and sixth form college. And then because my Mum find out, found out it was quite, you know it was quite, she was upset, it was, you know, “Stop it. Don’t do it anymore.” And I did stop but I did kind of, I stopped cutting my arms, it would just moved it onto like shoulders or legs but it wouldn’t be so obvious, but then when she found that out as well it was kind of, “You know you have to stop this now,” because you know threats of, you know you’re gonna kill us all mentally or whatever, it’s kind of, I just had to, because, and because my parents didn’t like the concept of me going to see a doctor about it, especially Mum, she was like, “You know you’re clever enough to sort it out yourself, just sort it out.”


And, “You know, you’re kind of intelligent enough, you’re, you’re mature enough,” ‘cos I’m the elder sister, then like, “You’re old enough. You, you can do this, just fix it yourself. Like I don’t want to have to worry about this problem with you.” And it’s kind of, “Okay.”


So I, you know I did what I could, I did read about self help things and it was kind of you know so I started writing in a journal, it, it worked but it didn’t work. And even now, if, you know, it take, it might be like six months in between, like the time of one cut and another, but it’s kind of, it’s not, I personally don’t feel like it’s ever gonna go away completely. 

Appendix 16.

Holly 18 years old

The only time they [parents] only found out about the depression and the self harming when I went into hospital obviously, and because I’d taken some tablets I had to have a blood test, and you can’t wear long sleeves when you’re having a blood test and so they saw obviously. and they were quite good about it in fact, I was surprised how sort of okay they were, because, because I’ve got eczema as well we had a dermatologist so they booked an appointment straight away and said what can we do about the scarring, how can we make them heal better, and I was expecting them to go completely mad but they were, they were quite good about it.


So they were kind of trying to think what we can do and how we can help, rather than being you know angry?


There was that part as well, but it was initially how we can help her, and then once things were sorted in their eyes there was sort of, “Right why the hell are you doing this”, and so.


Were they sorted in your eyes at that point?


They sorted out the sort of you know the cuts and things, and once, and medically I was fit and well, then it went onto the, “Why are you doing this,” and a more aggressive approach to it, sort of, whereas on the outside I was all healed up, on the inside I wasn’t and I was still you know, I was still self, wanting to self harm and I was still quite depressed, and so getting angry about it wasn’t the way to help.

Appendix 17.

Stacey 17 years old

‘Cos I was self harming, because it like, I wanted to work with children ‘cos I been to [college name] for two years, and I’ve got NVQ1 and entry level 2, and I think, something like that. And I wanted to go back to college this year and do childcare, but then I’m thinking, well do you know what I mean? Working with kids, having scars on your arms, not really right is it really, do you know what I mean? But I was told when I’m angry, to hold ice in my hands, in the palm of my hands and close it because it will hurt, it will sting, but it won’t leave you marks, it won’t leave any or there’s elastic bands, I was told loads of it do you know what I mean? But I haven’t actually ever tried any of them out.

Appendix 18.

Tasha 18 years old

Do you think you realised that it’s a problem and that you needed maybe some support for it?


No. Not, not until it sort of, it did come into the media a little bit like, there were, I saw in the newspaper like reports that this amount of young people do it and things like that. And then I sort of thought, oh yeah, oh yeah it’s really bad. And then it, when it got worse and it looked bad I realised, like ‘cos it started so small it didn’t. So, I don’t know. I didn’t realise what I was doing was, I knew it wasn’t right but I didn’t realise it was a problem. But, I think there’s quite a lot out, out there like to help with depression, but self harm’s a bit taboo still. Like, no-one really wants to talk about it, and help you with it I don’t think.

Appendix 19.

Sophie 17 years old

But like with my self harming I’ve done well ‘cos that’s one thing that I wanted to start on, I don’t want to self harm anymore. ‘Cos obviously it’s a scar for life really. But you know I stopped doing it, I ain’t done any yet, and I don’t want to do any more.


What do you think has helped you stop that then?


I’ve just put a stop to it. Like I just thought one day look, I’m gonna, ‘cos someone said to me the other day that I didn’t realise I’m going to walk up an aisle one day, getting married, the best day of my life, and then people would look at all these scars on my arms, and I don’t, I didn’t want people to look at me and think, they’re not, they’re not the best things to look at. But…


Yeah. So you kind of made a just a conscious decision yourself that I don’t want this. Does it make you feel good to think that you’ve been able to do that?


Yeah, but there’s sometimes I think it’s not gonna last. Like I could still, I could still do it. But I just got to have that, that hope that I’m not gonna do it.

Appendix 20.

Lisa 19 years old

It’s calmed down at the moment, I’m 19 at the moment and it’s calmed me down. But it was worse, the worst year I had was last year and the year before, that was terrible I felt like self harming which, my way of getting, my way of coping with that now is when I feel angry and frustrated I listen to music, I put my music on, now I’m into metal and rock, so you can imagine what it’s like when I’m depressed. So I put my music on and that’s, that’s how I cope with it. And then after I start listening to my music for a while or sang along to it, my frustration and anger usually goes away. And then after that I don’t feel like self harming. So I know that’s a weird way of coping with it, but it, you know it’s my way of coping with it. I think everybody has a different way of coping with things.


Yes, well the important thing is you’ve found something that works for you.


I think I found that when I was 16. When like you know, I was 16 I thought, oh, so angry and feels like metal and rock is like shouting and screaming. Like I felt like you know my anger is gone listening to that. And it’s been like that ever since.


Baldursdottir, B., Valdimarsdottir, H. B., Krettek, A., Gylfason, H. F., & Sigfusdottir, I. D. (2017). Age-related differences in physical activity and depressive symptoms among 10? 19-year-old adolescents: A population-based study. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 28, 91-99.

Hammarberg, K., Kirkman, M., & de Lacey, S. (2016). Qualitative research methods: when to use them and how to judge them. Human Reproduction, 31(3), 498-501.

Morina, N., Koerssen, R., & Pollet, T. V. (2016). Interventions for children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder: A meta-analysis of comparative outcome studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 47, 41-54.

Otte, C., Gold, S. M., Penninx, B. W., Pariante, C. M., Etkin, A., Fava, M., … & Schatzberg, A. F. (2016). Major depressive disorder. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, 2, 16065.[supanova_question]

Long working hours causes more stress 3 Running head: long working hours

Writing Assignment Help Long working hours causes more stress 3

Running head: long working hours causes more stress 1



This study has been designed to analyse the effect of long-term hours on the stress within employees in New Zealand. In the introduction part of the background of the study, problems statements have been articulated and based on identified issues, researchers have created research questions, objectives. Moreover, a profound literature review has been done to explain past research findings on stress level, depression, and poor work-life balance. In addition, research methodology has been analysed with justification, and lastly, the implication has been described based on research objectives.


There has been a subsequent meta-analysis of the relationship between working hours and stress levels. The effect of long working hours is exceptionally significant on the mental health of employees as it creates several undetected health issues. Occupational well-being can be enhanced once working hours are appropriately maintained and allow employees to balance their work and personal life. However, this study aims to understand working hour conditions in New Zealand and their effect on stress levels by formulating practical research questions and past research. Moreover, research methodology is explained scientifically to improve its acceptance level.

Research questions

RQ1: How does long working hours increase stress level among employees?

RQ2: What are the effects of long working hours on work-life balance and wellness of employees in New Zealand during a pandemic?

RQ3: How does the mental health condition of employees in New Zealand impacted by long working hours?

Research objectives

RO1: To understand the role of long working hours in increased stress level

RO2: To understand the effect of long working hour in work-life balance and wellness of employees of New Zealand during pandemic

RO3: To understand the impact of long working hours on mental health condition among employees of New Zealand

Long working hours creates depressive symptoms and stress among employees

At the workplace, prolonged working hours has been a serious contributing factor in stress level among employees in New Zealand. According to Artazcoz et al (2018), long working hours are extremely disturbing for health wellness as it gives less time to relax and rest. Moreover, it increases sleep disorder within employees and forces them to carry several diseases for future life. However, Cho-Hee (2021), prolonged working hours are beneficial for employee to reduce error and enhance performance level. This notion is criticized enough when a sudden pandemic has increased working time for WFH employees with poor life-work balance. Excessive working hours creates a close relationship with stress symbols and triggers depression (Ryu et al.2018). Increased working hours create high blood pressure, migraine, and stress. Employees state to intake alcohol consumption that is harmful for health.

Extended working hour has introduced poor work-life balance

Recent studies have revealed that prolonged working time directly impacts work-life balance and employees become less satisfied with their job due to increased occupational stress. Relatedly, employees must provide extra effort and energy during extended work which make them toiled enough to manage personal life (Song & Gao, 2020). Reputation of prolonged working time daily incorporates fatigue and lack of psychological activation at home which restricts them ineffective work-life balance. According to Govindaraju (2019), technology convergence has given employees greater mobility in daily life and allows them to work from home in a pandemic. However, in view of Hoedl, Bauer & Eglseer (2020), technology has made employees available 24*7 daily which has made their personal life. Although, technology increases the flexibility of employees, organizational management of New Zealand forces employees to perform their official responsibilities even after office hours are over. Therefore, extended working hours have increased poor work-life balance with significant threat to personal life and sound use of technology can improve flexibility of both responsibilities (Holden & Sunindijo, 2018).


Research approach

For this existing investigation, researchers will choose deductive research approaches as theory has been based on research objectives. Confirmation or rejection of such theory will be conducted based on observation. Generalisation of findings will be obtained from general to specific and the findings on working time effect on stress can be applied on each employee across the world. Deductive research approach is justified as research questionnaires will be set based on hypothesis or research objectives (Virtanen et al.2018). Deductive research approaches can be explained by means of hypotheses that can be derived from the position of theory. Therefore, deductive research approaches will be concerned with deducting profound conclusions from proposition and premises.

Research design

Conclusive research design will be formulated based on quantitative techniques. Through quantitative research design, researchers will collect numerical and statistical data from the field. From the collected data, researchers can test causal relationships and can generalise results over global employees to understand the role of prolonged working hours on stress level. This research design will be well justified as it will allow access to a huge sample size with randomised samples. Huge responses can be gathered in a quick data collection process.

Data collection method

To collect relevant data to support this study, researchers will conduct a primary survey to 32 participants from PSYC 217 class of Alexander College Burnaby. The participants are aged between 18 to 27 years old. Surveys will be conducted by questionnaires in which two different parts will be attached, such as demographic questions and depression related questions. Close-ended questions will be divided into 1-5 Likert Scale and another questionnaire will be based on the CES-D scale. This scale will help to understand the level of depression. Survey questionnaire will be asked to both female and male and out of 32 participants, 16 will be female and 16 will be male. The survey will be done by circulating a hard copy of the questionnaire in a room, and once responses are given, participants can leave this room.

Data analysis method

As quantitative research design will be formulated and data will be collected from survey questionnaires, researchers will count each close-ended question from the questionnaire and then divide these responses based on Likert and CES-D scale. Quantitative data analysis will include calculations of frequencies of variables and their differences. This part will be vital as derived findings will confirm or reject the theory (Virtanen et al.2018). However, close-ended questions will be complex to count and therefore, researchers will take the help of various numerical computations like SPSS. With the help of this software, data analysis can be supported by various profound graphical representations with statistical calculations. Primary surveys will be critically analysed to understand the reason for depression among employees.

Ethical considerations

Codification of scientific morality in research will be protected as ethical consideration, and it has been valuable in primary survey research. Before collecting individual responses from questionnaires, adequate consent letters will be articulated from concerned participants. Participants and their responses will be kept confidential, and any other information will be invisible exact gender and age (Virtanen et al.2018). Once participants are done with their responses, they can freely leave the room by dropping their questionnaire in the box placed outside the room. Their dignity will be respected, and protection of their privacy will be ensured. Moreover, any type of communication reading research will be kept transparent and clear.

Sample size and technique

The sample size will be 32 in which 16 will be female and 16 will be men from Alexander College Burnaby. A sample size of 32 is perfect to gather data reading workplace working hour and its impacts on stress level. However, random sampling techniques will be selected during data collection. Random sampling will be justified enough as it will ensure equal probability of each participant of this collage (Wagner-Hartl, Grossi & Kallus, 2018). random sampling technique will be suitable and justified as it collects data with low risk of errors while equal chance of selection ensures the simplest form of data collection.

Implications of the study

This study aims to understand the effect of prolonged working out on stress among employees, and hence, this study has enormous implications in article scenarios. Fulfilling the first objective of this study can help other employees and organisations to make out expected reasons behind higher stress and how increased working time impacts on stress levels among employees. After analysing this, organisations can understand its harmful health consequences and can take adequate strategy to reduce working hours. A generalized implication can be obtained once the effects of long working hours on employee wellness and work-life balance is properly understood (Wong, Chan & Ngan, 2019). Organizations can apply adequate steps to allow employees to enjoy their personal responsibilities, and moreover, misuse of technology can be eradicated. Furthermore, the New Zealand government and its organisations can be able to understand how prolonged working hours have impacted the mental health condition of employees. Once these are properly understood, the Government can modify its working regulations and rules for the favour of its efficient employees.


Artazcoz, L., Cortès-Franch, I., Escribà-Agüir, V., López, M., & Benavides, F. G. (2018). Long working hours and job quality in Europe: Gender and welfare state differences. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(11), retrieved from: 2592. [accessed on 20/8/2021]


Govindaraju, N. (2019). The impact of job stress, workload and long working hours on the job satisfaction of government doctors at tamil nadu. i-Manager’s Journal on Management, 14(1), 25. retrieved from: [accessed on 20/8/2021]

Hoedl, M., Bauer, S., & Eglseer, D. (2020). Influence of nursing staff working hours on the stress level during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional online survey. medRxiv. retrieved from: [accessed on 20/8/2021]

Holden, S., & Sunindijo, R. Y. (2018). Technology, long work hours, and stress worsen work-life balance in the construction industry retrieved from: [accessed on 20/8/2021]

Ryu, J., Yoon, Y., Kim, H., Kang, C. W., & Jung-Choi, K. (2018). The change of self-rated health according to working hours for two years by gender. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(9), 1984. retrieved from: [accessed on 20/8/2021]

Song, Y., & Gao, J. (2020). Does telework stress employees out? A study on working at home and subjective well-being for wage/salary workers. Journal of Happiness Studies, 21(7), 2649-2668. retrieved from: [accessed on 20/8/2021]

Stahl, B., & Goldstein, E. (2019). A mindfulness-based stress reduction workbook. new harbinger publications. retrieved from: [accessed on 20/8/2021]

Virtanen, M., Jokela, M., Madsen, I. E., Hanson, L. L. M., Lallukka, T., Nyberg, S. T., … & Kivimäki, M. (2018). Long working hours and depressive symptoms: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, 44(3), 239-250. retrieved from: [accessed on 20/8/2021]

Virtanen, M., Jokela, M., Madsen, I. E., Hanson, L. L. M., Lallukka, T., Nyberg, S. T., … & Kivimäki, M. (2018). Long working hours and depressive symptoms: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, 44(3), 239-250. retrieved from:,5&as_ylo=2017&as_yhi=2021&scillfp=1592582742846830171&oi=lle [accessed on 20/8/2021]

Virtanen, M., Jokela, M., Madsen, I. E., Hanson, L. L. M., Lallukka, T., Nyberg, S. T., … & Kivimäki, M. (2018). Long working hours and depressive symptoms: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, 44(3), 239-250. retrieved from: [accessed on 20/8/2021]

Wagner-Hartl, V., Grossi, N. R., & Kallus, K. W. (2018). Impact of age and hearing impairment on work performance during long working hours. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(1), 98. retrieved from: [accessed on 20/8/2021]

Wong, K., Chan, A. H., & Ngan, S. C. (2019). The effect of long working hours and overtime on occupational health: a meta-analysis of evidence from 1998 to 2018. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(12), 2102. retrieved from: [accessed on 20/8/2021] [supanova_question]

Writing Question

I need to write about (What are the differences between progressive and regressive taxes? Give examples of each type of
tax. What kind of taxes does Texas rely on? Do you think this is a fair system? Why or why not? What
changes would you like to see to Texas’s system for generating tax revenue?)

6 mins ago[supanova_question]

Smalling 1 Shanta Smalling Modern Literary Masterpieces Professor Fung-Ross August 2, 2021

Smalling 1

Shanta Smalling

Modern Literary Masterpieces

Professor Fung-Ross

August 2, 2021

The Rape of the Rock

“Even workhouses have their aristocracy,” is a befitting description of England in the 18th century as it maintained an Aristocratic society that held in high esteem the most frivolous and vain matters despite holding hereditary titles and ranks that came with responsibilities. “Rape of the Lock” mirrors the 18th-century aristocratic society. Pope does not attack the self-righteousness of the aristocratic society but instead uses a sly polished tone that gives the reader to view the foolishness and ridiculousness of the aristocratic actions. The poem The Rape of Lock by Alexander Pope uses satire to attack the upper class in London in the 18th century. It is a mockery of the upper echelon in the society, which sheds light on the social disintegration perpetuated by the 18th-century aristocracy. Moreover, it depicts the position of women then and the social life from the upper class. It gives insight into a variety of elements of the English culture of the 18th century. Pope mocks the misplacedness of the priorities and the insignificance of the value system of this time. Women portray their pettiness through their excessive attention to their appearance, spending ridiculous amounts of time grooming themselves. The wealthy play a prominent role in high society in England in the 1800s. Alexander Pope’s The Rape of the Lock satire mocks people in high society, revealing their pettiness and access to material goods.

The women in the upper class of the 18th century in England were extremely frivolous. The women are depicted as shallow and do not deserve their social position. However, they are also charming, but they can also be ridiculed since they are good examples of social products adopting without question their society’s attitudes as well as attributes. For instance, after the speech by Ariel, Belinda goes directly to the dressing table, which is depicted as being an altar, and Belinda the goddess as well as the priestess. Belinda is so vain that she worships herself. Belinda’s dressing symbolizes the Iliad where Hera is depicted as arming herself with finery with the aim of seducing Zeus, just like Hera Belinda is arming herself for the battle to conquer the male sex using weapons like powder and puffs. Belinda is a goddess, who is so full of herself. Belinda portrays the extent of misplaced priorities by solely focusing on her outward appearance and lacking in kindness, seriousness and grandeur, and virtue, which should be held in high esteem. The fashionable women are inwardly frivolous but represent an outward charm that hides that they have reversed the signs of things so that little to them is excellent, and vice versa is true. The women display emptiness and vanity and a pervading lack of purpose in their lives.

The emptiness of the men was parallel to the frivolity of women in high society. The poem depicts men as being obsessed with superficial appearances as well as material objects like the women in the poem. For instance, Baron loves Belinda but only displays this love via his intense desire for her locked hair. It shows how masculinity was represented into the aristocratic world, whereby men were not allowed to express their true feelings. The men’s main focus was flirting with the fashionable ladies and chasing sexual favors when they were not engaging in vain talks in the coffee houses and clubs (Pope). Additionally, Baron stole Belinda’s locked hair which was equated to rape by the Pope; thus the Pope passes moral judgment on the Baron due to this transgression. Lord Petre, coupled with his fellows, paints a picture of the high society of the time to be empty-minded and idle. In the battle of Canto V, characters like dapperwit, Sir Fopling are accorded parodic aristocratic names. It depicts significant attention towards an individual appearance and has little or inexistent moral value. It allows the Pope to satirize the aristocratic class values, particularly the moral as well as intellectual leaders in his era. The men lacked manners and portrayed a severe confusion in values and attached significance to dance and masquerades than religion.

Belinda is materialistic as her possessions define her world and she portrays the obsession with things that the high-class members embrace. The Pope portrays Belinda as a paragon of beauty and a beauty goddess. The Pope refers to her as a nymph capable of mankind’s destruction (Pope). Belinda decorates herself with paint and jewelry and goes to seduce her aristocratic lovers. She has a dressing table full of her makeup items and is obsessed with her locks of hair. She symbolizes aristocratic ladies who were materialistic toys and full of flippancy. Her focus on her appearance solely creates her worldly goal.

Materialism in the poem leads to objectifying women. The Pope is fixated on satirizing the womanhood rituals of the 18th century and is condescending of women’s attributes. For instance, he depicts a woman’s worth and freedom as intricately tied to their desirability in society. The women’s pride was achieved through beauty rituals; for instance, Belinda was an inferior priestess who trembled while she began her pride sacred rites; hence Belinda was faced with hair loss. She felt shame as well as public humiliation (Pope). The lock of hair from Belinda’s hair represented Baron’s sexual conquest. Men obtaining trophies from their sexual conquests align sex to a material goal. Baron insists on using force to win his so-called prize- who is Belinda-emphasizes the objectifying of women.

Conclusively, the high class of England in the 18th century bred men and women who held no regard for the essential things in life but instead emphasized frivolous and vain matters. Pope has brilliantly described the emptiness of fashionable lives. There should be more depth and seriousness in their activities and their lives in general. In the conventional society, everyone must ensure that their priorities are not misplaced and that the areas of their lives they lay significance on are not vain. Pope’s women’s characterization paints a negative image of females. Women are depicted as illogical and men inferiors. Pope also represents men’s views of not comprehending why women get mad over trivial issues. Further, he disrespects the female autonomy by buying to the prima donna women perception.

Work cited

Pope, Alexander. The Rape of Lock. London: Vintage Classic, 2007. Print.[supanova_question]