Is the Internet a Right or a Privilege?

Yet, as you read in the Module Notes, many groups within the United States, and many countries internationally, have significantly less access to new media than others. The arrival of each new technology creates another division between those with access to the latest new media and those who do not have access to new media.In 1948, long before new media, the United Nations adopted a Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Links to an external site.) which outlines the rights all people on Earth can expect to enjoy. This can help us in thinking about the ethical issues that arise from the digital divide. Review the Declaration, particularly Articles 18-20, 26, and 27, and then proceed to the discussion questions.Discussion QuestionsAfter reviewing the Module Notes, respond to the following questions. •    Identify at least one potential impact of the so-called “digital divide” of democracy, either nationally or internationally. How might this consequence impact political participation or political representation?•    Referring to specific articles from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, should access to new media be considered a human right? If so, who should be helping to achieve universal access? If not, how should society deal with the digital divide?[supanova_question]

Introduction There are two similar definitions of the social determinants of health.


There are two similar definitions of the social determinants of health.

The Rural Health Information Hub uses the World Health Organization’s definition: “the circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work and age, and the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics.” (

In a comprehensive white paper, the CDC uses this definition: “Social determinants of health (SDH) are the complex, integrated, and overlapping social structures and economic systems that include the social environment, physical environment, and health services; structural and societal factors that are responsible for most health inequities. SDH are shaped by the distribution of money, power, and resources at global, national, and local levels, which are themselves influenced by policy choices.” (

REPLY 1 – There are many social disparities that impact the health of our own communities. Some that I am aware of are age, gender, socioeconomic status, housing/homelessness, food disparity and education. I currently live in a predominantly Hispanic neighborhood and as I understand in Fresno county we have a large population of Hispanics. I know that this population is suffering greatly from some of the more common co-morbidities such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes. A great deal of this is from poor diet and lack of exercise. Unfortunately, as delicious as the traditional meals are  they are often unhealthy. Without having access to other options and fresh foods this community continues to suffer. Often in some of our poor communities you will find liquor stores and fast food, but no fresh food options. This is contributing to the underlying health conditions as well.

In many of our communities we are seeing more homeless people and this may come from lack of education, and because some are unable to survive off of the minimum wage. They are unable to make ends meet with even the very basic necessities. Lack of education contributes to lower paying jobs, and many go without health coverage. In turn they are unable to have the necessary check ups and cannot afford life-saving medications. It is a fact that those with educations and higher paying jobs are living longer and with less health conditions because of the health care. 

We are seeing more homeless people, and  others that are having to live in unhealthy conditions at home. Homes with contaminated water, mold that contributes to allergy and asthma problems, as well as headaches and chronic bronchitis, and even homes that are infested with roaches. These poor living conditions are health stress factors, both physically and mentally. 

The social disparities listed above are stressors to our physical and mental health. Imagine not being able to take the necessary medications to live, not having a chance at receiving an education with fair employment wages, and not being able to provide a home with a safe and clean environment for our own family.  I like to believe that everyone has the same and equal chances in life, but because of discrimination and stereotypes with attached stigmas sometimes the social disparities may become harder to overcome. 

REPLY 2 – There are a lot of things that affect a local community when it comes to healthcare or lack thereof. A lot of the community’s health issues arise from housing status, job status, financial status, health status, and personal preferences. Social determinants of healthcare affect not only people’s families, but our local community’s as well.

Some people’s health declines based on their housing situation. Some can’t afford to go to the doctor therefore they don’t get the proper care. When you have to decide whether to pay rent or get treatment most people chose to pay rent so they have a place to live. This is also true when it comes to eating and providing the necessities to survive. Some people live in areas of town that some others wouldn’t be seen driving through. These are ridden with filth and desolation, that these people seem to be forgotten. They are lucky to even have a corner market or store that has food, let alone around an area with accessible healthcare.

Another factor in our community is people’s jobs or lack thereof. In my Population Health class, we talked about social determinants of health and when people have to work because it would cost them more to go to the doctor than to work, they chose to just work. It was a proven fact that those that weren’t able to leave or take time off, were the ones that seemed to be neglecting their health. Some companies have clinics on-site, where these workers could seek treatment on their lunches, but this isn’t manageable healthcare. When you aren’t making enough money to pay for medical bills, you aren’t going to seek treatment. 

Money is another huge issue why people chose not to seek medical attention when they aren’t well. Even going to the emergency room seems like a whole day is wasted away, urgent cares are okay if they’re for minor colds, but most don’t take Medi-Cal. Most people have issues taking time off as often on state aid and state-funded insurance, but it’s not always as simple as going to the doctor and going home. Most can’t afford to get to the doctor, take time off work, or even the time to wait. Some people have multiple children with no way of caring for them, so that means they would need to also take them. Having financial burdens are definitely reasons why our local community has declined in taking care of themselves.

With that said, those that have taken the time to be seen have also had medical incidences brought up that they aren’t ready to face. These are illnesses that would require multiple appointments weekly/monthly for upkeep. Like cancer or other debilitating illnesses where these appointments are crucial. Simply put, they aren’t able to commit to these appointments. They aren’t able to get the time off, at most there could be some financial burden, and there is simply no time as most work 12-14 hours a day.

Lastly, mental health is a huge factor in our community when it comes to our community’s health status. I would say the majority of cases of homelessness are due to some mental illness. Whether clinical or self-induced. Our streets and highways are being overtaken by homelessness and it’s so disheartening to see no one helping or trying to figure out ways to help….at least those that truly want help. Some mental health is due to heredity, some due to PTSD or some other trauma, but for the most part, it seems as though it’s a life choice. Maybe they feel it’s easier to just not have a care in the world but what they aren’t seeing is the financial burden it’s having on the city and how it’s tearing them down mentally and physically. Diseases are spread by filth and unsafe measures. 

Most people are born into poverty because of their upbringing, their ethnicity, and their background. Some are on the streets because they can’t afford the treatments anymore, they lost their jobs and haven’t gotten back on their feet, their families have kicked them out, or they choose to live there. Their health is based on how they take care of themselves, mentally and physically. When you aren’t taking care of your mind then you aren’t taking care of your body. I try to believe in my heart that no one would willingly choose to live like this, and I pray and try to help whenever I can. I honestly feel that we have it in us to pick ourselves up and make a difference for ourselves. Sure the last class on social determinants of health brought up a lot of points about how others view certain ethnic groups and backgrounds, how they are just prone to get the short end of the stick; however that class also showed that they are also able to cut that stigma and rise about it. Some seem to use it as a crutch (my sister has), but I have seen some rise above and have not allowed their background to be their undoing. I think that we can all learn a lot from each other if we stop ourselves and look past our unconscious biases and try to help others. To see things from other’s points of view. To view others the way Jesus did. Social determinants of health are real, but I truly feel that everyone can overcome their past and create their own future.


Initial Post

Watch Cleveland Clinic Population Health & Social Determinants of Health – an introduction

Describe 3-5 social determinants of health that affect the Fresno county Population

Consider what important economic factors are at work in your area or the circumstances that people are born into, like race, ethnicity, or national origin. 

How do these factors affect the health of people in your community or county?

300-350 words.


Reply to 1 and 2

Minimum 150 words[supanova_question]

Please respond to both prompts use in-text citation. APA Format Reference is provided for prompt2 Prompt #1: PowerPoint Terminology

Please respond to both prompts use in-text citation. APA Format
Reference is provided for prompt2

Prompt #1: PowerPoint Terminology

Do you know the difference between a slide layout and a master layout? Do you know what object animation does? Search the web for PowerPoint terminology and share some definitions you find beneficial to this week’s discussion (minimum of 5 terms). Make sure to provide an APA citation for the source you used to find the information in your post.

Remember to provide citation(s) in APA format for the unit content or external sources you use to write your post(s)!

Prompt #2: Chapter on Nervous System

Differentiate the 2 divisions of the nervous system. List their main functions.
List the components of the neuron and list the function of each part. List the 6 glial cells, each of their functions and whether they are found in the CNS of PNS.
it is expected that you will include both in-text and final references properly formatted in APA

Eachstudent will be required to interview and/or observe an individual student and preparea case study based on guidelines found

Writing Assignment Help Eachstudent will be required to interview and/or observe an individual student and

preparea case study based on guidelines found elsewhere in this syllabus. Theinterview

mustbe structured to gather information about child development and findingscombined

witha minimum of five developmentaltheories from course materials and other readings

tocreate a study of 8-12 pages in length (not including the appendix), doublespaced,

onesided 12 font paper.

Thegoal of this project is to allow thought provoking and student exploration ofseveral

aspectsof development and compare findings to theories and researcharticles. This

project is a course requirement. Failure to complete this portion of the class will

result in significant grade reduction for the final grade.


Case Study: The objective of this assignment is to help you relate theconcepts we are studying to a child or adolescent with whom you areacquainted. The individual you are studying should be at least 4 yearsold and no older than 18 years. It is important that you answer each ofthe questions below about your child and provide evidence to support yourposition. To do this assignment well, you must read the appropriatechapters thoroughly before developing any interviewquestions or observations.

The Write-Up

1. Type the casestudy in font size 12, with one-inch margins, double spaced. It shouldrange between 8 and 12 pages, not including the appendix.

2. An “introduction”section of your paper will include a description of your interviewee usingfirst name only or a fictional name, the setting of the interview, and relevantdemographics.

3. There should be SEVEN(7) distinct sections of your CASE STUDY. Each section is described belowwith sample questions and requirements for each.

4. A “discussion” sectionof your paper should address the other seven areas shown in thissyllabus. Please set off each section with headings in bold print. Include all interview questions and asnwers in an appendix to your paper. Any questions and answers included in the appendix do not need to be typed, butmust be readable. This section should contain the information fromPiaget, Erikson, and the other three theories that you choose. It is alsosuggested that you include the name of the theorist in bold letters the firsttime you use that particular theory—this has helped students to organize the“theories” requirement for the paper.

5. A “Conclusions”section of your paper will allow for reflections on the interview, “lessonslearned,” and implications for teaching. Use the text, your observations,class notes, etc. to “tie everything together” in this section.

6. The final paper mustbe submitted on or before the due date.

7. Remember that personbeing studied should remain anonymous and fictitious name should be used in theCASE STUDY.

SAMPLE Questions for the CASE STUDY




grade in school

any disability

Use only first name, gender, age, grade in school, anydisability that may be present. Do not include any identifyinginformation (last name, school attending, etc.) about the student.

Cognitive Development

Have the person do two Piagetian tasks (eg. any conservationtask for a child from 5-9, a combinations task for a child 9-18; please see thetextbook). Using the text, explain what Piaget would expect and whetherhe or she seem to have the capability that Piaget would predict given his orher age. Note: Piaget must be cited.


Ask the person for a copy of a short paper they have written orhave them write a short paragraph about anything they choose (a young child maydictate to you if necessary). Does the writing ability surprise you for aperson of this age?


Interview the child or adolescent to determine:

the family composition; what disagreements he or she has withthe parents; what parenting style is evident (eg. what happens if you disobeythem, if you get a bad grade? do they go to events at school? dothey know where you are and who you are with? do they include you indecisions, give an example? etc.)

Compare this information with what the text suggests…if thechild is from a divorced family, is his or her experience typical? Ifboth parents work, is his or her experience typical?

How does this information compare with what the textsuggests? (eg. what is the evidence for a certain parenting style, arethe disagreements similar to what the literature would lead you to expect, ifthe child is from a divorced family, is his or her experience typical; etc.).


Interview the child to determine:

1. who his or her friendsare; and what makes someone a best friend. For adolescents, ask about thegroups in the school, and which they belong to.

2. what kinds of thingspeers influence and what kinds of things parents influence. Use the text tohelp you justify whether the responses are typical of other children of thisage. Does the research suggest that most children of the same age say thesame things?

Motivation/Self concept

Interview the child or adolescent to determine if he or she hasmastery or performance goals. To what does he or she attribute success orfailure? Explain your reasoning.

Sample questions:

How did you do on your last test? Why do you think that happened?

Ask the person if they strongly agree, agree, disagree, orstrongly disagree to the following statements:

1. I would feel reallygood if I were the only one who could answer the teacher’s questions in class.

2. It’s important to methat the other students in my classes think that I am good at my work.

3. I like schoolwork thatI’ll learn from, even if I make a lot of mistakes.

4. An important reasonwhy I do my schoolwork is because I like to learn new things.

5. I like schoolwork bestwhen it really makes me think.

6. An important reasonwhy I do my work in school is because I want to get better at it.

7. One reason I would notparticipate in class is to avoid looking stupid.

8. I do my schoolworkbecause I am interested in it.

9. An important reasonwhy I do my schoolwork is so that I don’t embarrass myself.

10.I’d like to show myteachers that I’m smarter than the other students in my classes.

For young children, modifications will have to be made to thesequestions.

Review the characteristics of the different goal statuses anddetermine what sort of goals this person has.

Moral Development

Ask the following dilemma:

You are shopping at the local department store with a friend when you noticethat you friend is shoplifting school supplies. You look around andnotice that the store manager is watching you. What should you do? Why? (for younger children you may want to look up Piaget’s breaking cupsdilemma)

In what stage of moral development does this individual seem tobe? Explain your reasoning.


Give some concluding remarks bringing everything together. Tie in notes, observations, interviews and textbook.

There should seven distinct sections included in your casestudy. You may want to make sure that you set them off by bold print orlarger font upon final draft of study. [supanova_question]

5 Academic Year 2020/21 Research Methods and International Project UOR323-MUC04887 Reducing the


Academic Year 2020/21

Research Methods and International Project


Reducing the Negative Impacts of Climate Change through the use of Clean and Affordable Energy: Case Study of Spain

Word Count: 4693

Student Number: 1988

Student Name: Álvaro Esteve Leal

Supervisor: Ellen Pabst von Ohain


The completion of my research would not be possible without my parents and my teacher. Academic tasks and research are time-consuming, and without support and encouragement from them, I would not have managed through this. My parents financial support allowed me to pursue this course and, as a result, pursue a course that allowed me to study one of the most challenging research problems facing our society. I would also like to thank my teacher for moral support and valuable guidance through this academic milestone. Special thanks again go to my friend and classmate for always being there for me. The encouragement to push on made a big difference in the completion of this paper.

Executive Summary

Spain is in the midst of an explosive energy revolution. Over the last two decades, Spain has drastically reduced its reliance on fossil fuels, especially coal, and subsequently scaled up its reliance on renewable and clean energy. Emerging technological advances and innovation offer the country extra options to address its energy demands and climate change issue. Technology has opened new ways and performances to reduce reliance on fossil fuel imports and cut consumption costs among its citizens. Renewable energy has not only made it easier for citizens to access affordable energy but also increased their economic participation. Jobs have increased by 3% as a result of advancements in the energy sector. More so, the renewable sector has significantly made it easier for Spain to combat the dangers of climate change. Over the years, climate change consequences have worsened, but increased investment in clean and affordable energy has reduced Spain’s gas emission by about 35% since 2007. This research paper focuses on the potentials of clean and renewable energy to impact the Spanish economy, reduce climate change impacts, and improve its economy.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 6

1.0 Introduction 6

1.1 Background and Context………………………………………………………………………………………………….8

1.2 Research Problem and Rationale 9

1.3 Research Aims and Objective 10

1.4 Research Questions/Hypothesis 10

Chapter 2: Literature Review 10

2.0 Introduction 10

2.1 Constant Growth and a Positive Impact On The Economy 11

2.3  Economic, Environmental And Social Impacts 13

2.4 Clean Energy, Carbon Dioxide Emission And Agriculture 14

2.4 Research Gap 15

Chapter 3: Methodology 15

3.0 Introduction 15

3.1 The Study Area and Study Approach 15

3.2 Target Population and Sampling Procedure 16

3.3 Data Collection 16

3.4 Data Analysis Methods 17

3.5 Reliability And Validity 17

3.6 Scope And Limitation 17

3.7 Ethical Concerns/Issues 17

Chapter 4: Analysis And Discussion Of Findings 18

4.1 Analysis Of Findings 18

4.2 Discussion Of Findings 21

Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendations 22

5.1 Conclusion 22

5.2 Recommendation 23

5.3 Future Research Outlook 23

References 25

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.0 Introduction

Energy plays a central role in our current day-to-day living, from health to infrastructure to lighting and cooking. As such, securing energy supply and controlling energy contribution to climate change remain two over-riding challenges in as much as a sustainable future is concerned. The global war against climate change entails the global effort towards a carbon emission-free society. In the past decade, climate change has been considered a “climate crisis,” and solving this problem is solely tied to the energy sector. The energy sector contributes considerably to greenhouse gases emission, and for many countries, clean and affordable energy is the only pathway to transition from fossil fuels. Transitioning to clean and affordable energy is part of a strategy to solve the climate change problem. Scientists agree that climate change is attributed to human activities, mainly due to the massive use of oil, gas, coal, and firewood to power energy production. Fossil fuels (oil, gas, and coal) have dominated the energy sector. With the current growing population, demand for fossil fuels has equally doubled, resulting in significant global challenges associated with increased carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to global warming. According to Pao, Li, & Fu (2014), the planet’s temperature has risen by about 0.13°F (0.07°C) every decade since 1800, with the rate expected to double in the coming years (Payam & Taheri, 2018). These statistics mean that today’s world is much warmer than it was in 1900, and it explains why sea levels have risen and polar ice melting. For Spain, climate change remains a serious threat, and the consequences are felt across the economy.

More so, almost 80% of the Pyrenees regions’ glacial ice has melted and consequently contributed to sea-level rise (Cai, Sam, & Chang, 2018). Climate change has also contributed to high-intensity rains and floods, with most European nations expected to record rains and floods of up to 25% in wintertime every year. The consequences of climate change are dire, but as Kumar et al. (2019) write, the grave impacts of climate change can be avoided if clean and afforded energy is integrated into the system. Clean and affordable energy refers to renewable and non-fossil fuel sources such as solar energy, wind energy, hydro energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy, and biomass energy. Clean and affordable energy sources have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels and, consequently, mitigate climate change. In Spain, renewable, clean, and affordable energy has grown to account for approximately 53% of its total energy production. So far, solar photovoltaics (PV) comprise about 55% of the country’s renewable energy, followed by wind power at about 33%. In December 2019, all Spanish renewable energy plants produced a total of 109,269 GWh of renewable power, making an average increase of 12% yearly since 2007 (Bekhet, Matar, & Yasmin, 2017). In 2020, Spain added 2705 MW of new wind and solar power plants and disconnected 3500 MW of non-renewable energy plants, mainly coal-burning units.

Overall, greenhouse gases stemming from electricity production sites declined by 27% in 2020, and wind firms remain the biggest energy producers after nuclear technology. Ideally, the overall effort towards clean and affordable energy has been emphasized and fully integrated into its policies, making Spain rank 4th country with the highest proportion of renewable energy after the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Germany (Payam & Taheri, 2018). Economic growth and development, climate change consciousness, and sustainability are important initiatives for carbon reduction in every country. Developed nations promote renewable energy sources to control greenhouse gases and foster their economic growth. Therefore, understanding the causal relationship between clean and affordable energy and reducing climate change impacts and economic growth is a significant aspect for any country and particularly policymakers. According to Garrett-Peltier (2017), energy growth-nexus is a key term referring to the relationship between clean energy consumption and economic growth and development. Over the past decade, the energy-growth nexus has become a subject of discussion and analysis of clean (renewable) and affordable energy growth, and its economic impact is needed. This paper is organized into key sections: introduction, literature review, research methodology, data analysis and discussion, and conclusion and recommendations.

Background and context

Increasing population means that the demand for energy and its associated needs is on the rise. Every society demands energy supply to meet human needs such as cooking, lighting, mobility, and communication. Since 1850, global use of fossil fuels (coal, gas, and oil) has increased and now dominate the energy supply contributing significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. Climate change is attributed to increased greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions. As of 2019, the atmosphere’s carbon dioxide level was estimated at a record high of 409.8 parts per million. Increased use of fossil fuels has significantly contributed to this problem, and renewable energy is deemed the only solution to mitigating greenhouse gases. Clean and affordable sources have a massive advantage because of their low environmental impact and high sustainability (Adewuyi & Awodumi, 2017). Ideally, renewable energy sources offer an exceptional opportunity to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and reduce global warming by substituting conventional and harmful energy sources. Governmental and non-governmental agencies are working towards a sustainable future where the goal is to replace fossil-fuel energy sources with alternative renewable sources. Spain has initiated several programs that aim to reduce the impact of climate change and increase access to affordable energy. There is a need to determine the sole effect of Spain’s renewable energy initiatives on both the economy and the people’s livelihoods. Research proves that clean and renewable energy offers a win-win strategy for developed and developing nations. Clean energy and renewable initiatives trigger poverty reduction, climate protection, job security, and technology advancement. The questions underpinning this research study include:

Does clean energy consumption contribute to climate change mitigation and an eco-friendly environment in Spain?

Can economic growth improve environmental quality in the long run?

1.2 Research problem and rationale

The major contribution of this study include. First, the study investigates the coverage of clean and renewable energy in Spain. Secondly, the research investigates whether renewable energy development has positively impacted the war against greenhouse gas emissions and overall economic growth. Ideally, the measure of economic growth entails measuring whether clean energy has reduced the cost of energy compared to fossil fuels. Finally, the study proposes a new perspective of clean and renewable energy hypothesis, making it easy to draw implications of Spain’s sustainability policies and the over a decade-long renewable industry investment. As such, the study presents the issue of clean and affordable energy as a subject of consideration in scientific research.

1.3 Research aims and objectives.

The research study’s key aim is to determine whether clean and affordable energy has reduced climate change impacts and subsequently reduced the cost of energy. The key research objectives are as follows:

To determine the percentage of people who have access to clean and affordable energy in Spain.

To explore whether clean energy has reduced climate change impacts in the past ten years (2010-2020).

To determine whether clean and affordable energy (solar energy, wind, hydropower) has made life better for both industries and households.

1.4 Research questions/hypothesis

The research hypothesis assumes that clean energy (solar, wind, nuclear energy, among others) can provide affordable energy and green jobs while providing economic development and energy autonomy to the Spanish people. The hypothesis being tested is Spain can become an entirely “off the grid” nation, and in so doing, increase its initiatives towards low greenhouse gas emission and overall improved quality of life.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.0 Introduction

The literature review section explores previous research studies on renewable energy, initiatives to combat climate change, and Spain’s past ten years’ efforts to promote the renewable energy sector. Through this assessment, it is possible to identify the renewable sector’s progress, its contribution to economic growth, and the overall impact of clean energy on climate change initiatives.

2.1 Constant growth and a positive impact on the economy

According to Quitzow et al. (2019), since 2007, Spain has invested massively in renewable energy. The expansion of the sector at an average of 10.7% growth has translated to an annual contribution of close to 10.5 billion dollars into Spain’s gross domestic product (GDP). The renewable energy sector has absorbed close to 90,000 people and further set a record in the export volume. In another investigation on the macroeconomic impacts of renewable energy in Spain by the Association of Renewable Energy Companies (APPA), Spain’s renewable energy accounts for 13.9 % of the country’s primary energy and currently supply the country 40% of electricity, saving Spain more than 8 billion euros in fossil fuel imports and another 900 million in the emission rights (Emir & Bekun, 2019). Ideally, renewable energy has significantly contributed to economic growth by creating green employment opportunities and improving the quality of life by preventing the emission of approximately 60 million tonnes of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere in the past decade.

Ideally, energy and growth nexus has been studied by many researchers, with many of them focusing on country-specific studies. In their investigation on the relationship between growth and a country’s energy consumption, Polzin, Sanders, & Täube (2017) concluded that there was a positive relationship between renewable energy and economic growth in developed nations. Essletzbichler (2012) further examined the relationship between renewable energy and economic growth in 80 countries and concluded that there is bidirectional causality between economic growth and renewable energy consumption only in the long-term period. Ideally, renewable energy offers extensive benefits that allow a country to increase its gross domestic products considerably. According to Fotourehchi (2017), spending money in any economic sector creates jobs as people must be employed to run machines or produce services or goods supplied by an economy. According to Quitzow et al. (2019), this assertion is true regardless of whether the spending is initiated by a private entity, state, or household. He argues further that spending directly on clean and affordable energy has a massive positive impact on job creation than the fossil fuel industry has had in the past century.

Chapman & Itaoka (2018) agree that investment in clean energy creates a more robust and lasting source of job creations in any country relative to spending an equal amount on fossil fuels as it offers both direct, indirect, and induced economic effects. Arguably, building wind turbines or solar panels offers direct effects, which include retrofitting of homes to make them more energy-efficient, indirect effects such as the emergence of solar and energy-efficient companies, and induced effects such as increased expenditure by people across other sectors of the economy on energy-efficient options. García (2019) notes that renewable energy is economically convenient for countries relying more on fuel imports. It allows countries to utilize local labor, services, and materials from the local market to create value. Investing in solar energy, wind, and hydropower significantly lowers electric costs in local regions and considerably reduces the import volume at the national level. Imports tend to affect the country’s balance of payment, and reducing it by creating the same services or products domestically is incredibly advantageous. Over the past few decades, many locals have leveraged the opportunity to exploit natural energy sources, such as solar and wind (Bekhet, Matar, & Yasmin, 2017). As a result, consumers have now been accessing electric power at lower costs compared to a decade before. Multiple options for generating power present new opportunities and make it much easier for an economy to expand.

2.3 Economic, environmental, and social impacts

According to Knuth (2018), clean and renewable energy has contributed to improved environmental and social wellbeing. Clean energy has led to a considerable decline in greenhouse gas emissions and further awakened the globe concerning climate change consciousness. A study by Franco, Power, & Whereat (2020) observes that despite huge damages caused by climate change, renewable energy has slightly reduced some of these impacts in the past ten years (Bekhet, Matar, & Yasmin, 2017). Significant impacts are observed in people’s overall improvement in the quality of life and advanced community development. Renewable energy sources are entirely sensitive to environmental safety and, therefore, its execution and installation factors in several aspects of environmental safety (Cai, Sam, & Chang, (2018). Renewable energy has not only reduced the emission of greenhouse gasses but also lowered the discharge of oil and other fossil wastes into the environment. More so, vital social and economic benefits are attributed to renewable/clean energy, including increased employment opportunities, increased customer choices, and better climate conditions (Bekhet, Matar, & Yasmin, 2017). Ideally, with renewable energy, total emission is projected to decline considerably over the next decades. Accordingly, the macroeconomic effects of reduced fossil fuel are felt by both importing and exporting nations. Negative economic impacts are felt mainly by countries whose fossil fuel exports contribute to a significant percentage of their GDP (Pao, Li, & Fu, 2014). As such, the most affected nations by renewably energy sources are oil-producing nations such as Saudi Arabia, Russia, Nigeria, and Venezuela, as their oil exports account for 15% and above of their national GDP.

2.4 Clean energy, carbon dioxide emission and agriculture

According to Jebli and Youssef (2017), there is both short- and long-term causality between renewable energy and agriculture. There is evidence that while renewable energy such as waste increases emissions in the long run, increased agricultural production reduces carbon dioxide by a significant percentage. Nonetheless, there is a causal link between energy consumption, carbon dioxide emission, and agricultural valued added, and real gross domestic product for a country. Long-term parameters indicate that increase in clean energy consumption decreases carbon dioxide emissions. As such, clean and renewable energy sources, especially solar and wind, increases a nation’s agricultural production and subsequently combat global warming (Emir & Bekun, 2019). Accordingly, clean energy offers many reliable power supplies and increases a country’s fuel diversification hence enhancing its energy security, reduce a country’s need for imported fossil fuels, and prevent or lower risks of fuel pollution through spills.

Polzin, Sanders, & Täube (2017) write that clean energy on top of reducing greenhouse emission never runs out. Renewable characteristic means that clean energy sources compared to non-renewable sources will never run out. Kumar et al. (2019) write further that fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas will run out in the next 40-60 years, but the sun and wind will never stop shining and blowing, respectively. The earth has a considerable amount of geothermal energy that never runs out, making renewable energy a long-term alternative. Notably, renewable energy protects the environment much more than fossil fuels do. Increased use of fossil fuels means an increase in environmental pollution and more harmful impacts on human health, such as cardiac and respiratory issues (Adewuyi, & Awodumi, 2017). More so, renewable energy is not only environmentally friendly but also cost-effective. Increased investment in renewable energy reduces a country’s dependence on foreign energy imports and increases its independence, thus creating a conducive economic environment for all.

2.4 Research Gap

If we explore clean energy’s role on economic growth, it is theoretically straightforward that renewable energy is labour-intensive compared to fossil fuel. Many researchers point out that clean energy increases economic growth, reduces environmental impacts, and improves the overall quality of life, among other benefits. However, many of these studies indicate that the impact of renewable energy on an economy is insignificant. The impact of renewable energy on economic growth and climate change remains inconclusive. This research study fills the research gap by exploring a new research hypothesis that Spain will become an entirely “off the grid” nation by fully integrating renewable sources of energy and eventually increase its initiatives towards low greenhouse gas emission and overall improved quality of life.

Chapter 3: Methodology

3.0 Introduction

The methodology section explores the process of data collection, participants sampling techniques, ethical code of conduct, reliability and variability, data analysis methods, and research limitations.

3.1 Study Area and Study Approach

The study area is in the autonomous community of Basque Country, a region in northern Spain, and the data in the region will be collected through surveys and questionnaires. In addition to the primary data sources, secondary sources will be used in order to collect extra data on the trends and adoption of solar energy in the region. A combination of primary and secondary data will lead to robust access to data used to test the research questions and hypothesis.

3.2 Target Population and Sampling Procedure

The target population was mainly from households in three villages in rural areas in Spain. These households gave an actual reflection of the impacts of renewable energy has at their home and workplace. The sampling procedure focused solely on households connected to power generated by renewable energy sources, such as wind turbines and solar panels. Additionally, to recruit participants from every household into the program, multistage sampling was adopted. Through multistage sampling, three regions were identified to have key energy sources, which are the following: solar electricity, wind turbines, and hydropower supply. Two local centres were identified per region, giving a total of six local centres. In the third stage of multistage sampling, two blocks were identified from each of the six local centres, giving a total of 12 blocks. Residents from each of the 12 blocks were invited to a community forum with the help of community chiefs or elders. At the forum, household heads who met the required expectations were selected. To narrow the target population even more, group discussions and informative interviews were used, a large sample was created in all 12 blocks. From each block, an average of 15 males and 15 females were identified, giving a total average of 30 participants. The total sample size was 320, where 50% were female and 50% male. Semi-structured interviews were administered to the participants.

3.3 Data Collection

Data from the 320 participants were collected using a rapid rural appraisal framework where a team of researchers visited and identified participants in their homes. The data collection method was ideal because it allowed researchers to observe key renewable energy variables and record them where necessary. Equally important, with semi-structured interviews, it was much easier to seek information about their perception of renewable energy and climate change. Each household helped come up with data on the overall coverage of renewable energy, costs attached to renewable energy compared to fossil fuels, and the role of renewable energy in combating climate change, among other factors.

3.4 Data Analysis Methods

With both primary and secondary data, the research used descriptive statistics to compute the research variables. Tables, means, percentages, and frequencies were calculated and interpreted using Microsoft Excel.

3.5 Reliability and Validity

Notably, to increase research reliability and validity, appropriate data sources were used for secondary data and relevant tools adopted throughout primary data collection.

3.6 Scope and Limitation

This study covers the impact of renewable or clean energy on the people of Spain. It covers critical areas such as cost renewable energy compared to fossil fuels, the perceived benefits of clean energy, perceived impacts of renewable energy on climate change, and economic growth because of increased adoption of renewable energy sources. The researcher limited the study to a particular region in Spain and used a simple analysis to draw the causality of the stated variables. The research is limited by the fact that it is less quantitative and, therefore, highly subjective.

3.7 Ethical Concerns/Issues

Ethical codes of conduct remain a critical aspect of research. As such, while conducting research, key codes of practice were fully adhered to and included respect for anonymity and confidentiality, respect for privacy, integrity, and honesty, research objectivity, informed consent, beneficence-do not harm, and safety, especially for the vulnerable groups. The researcher adhered to the mandate of ensuring that people recruited into the research program are informed about the research objectives and equally granted the option to exit at their wish. Researchers must also accord participants safety during the data collection process and ensure that their privacy and anonymity are protected even post-research. Researchers have a responsibility to remain objective and honest throughout the research. Data collected and private information from the researchers should remain under good care and should never be released to third parties without participants’ consent. Finally, dealing with secondary data demands that researchers acknowledge sources where data was borrowed. More so, the research is objective right from the first page to the last page.

Chapter 4: Analysis and Discussion of Findings

4.1 Analysis of Findings

Out of the 320 participants selected for the research, 60% were aged 45 years and above. The study focused on household heads as this allowed the research to capture enough and detailed information about renewable energy. Out of the 320 participants, 75% were professionals working in different sectors of the economy. The table below gives a presentation of research variables and several respondents in each category.

Table 1: Respondent Responses


No of respondents

% of respondents

Access to Renewable energy (solar, wind, and hydropower)













Improved quality of life because of renewable energy










Renewable energy is less costly










Renewable Energy improved their economic wellbeing










Table 1 indicates that most locals (68%) have access to at least one type of renewable source of energy in Spain. 94% agree further that clean energy compared to fossil fuel was much cost-effective in terms of usage and access. 78% agree that access to renewable energy has improved their livelihood in the past ten years. However, 50% of the respondents stated that renewable energy contributed to the nation’s economic growth in the last ten years, with another 35% partially agreeing and the other 15% not agreeing at all. Secondary data indicate that Spain’s renewable energy consumption has been rising since 2009, with the highest consumption in exajoules being 0.86 in 2020.

Figure 1

Primary and secondary data agree that renewable energy has had a significant penetration in Spain in the last decade. 68% of the household agreed to have access to at least one source of renewable energy. Based on the questionnaires, there is a significant growth in the country’s biofuels, meaning that a significant proportion of the nation’s population was leveraging alternative energy sources. Accordingly, the growth in renewable energy sources was attributed mainly to favourable weather conditions and technologies such as photovoltaics. While Spain’s renewable energy consumption increased significantly in the last ten years, its coal consumption declined by approximately 58% in 2019 alone, with most of the coal-fired units closing.

4.2 Discussion of Findings

Primary and secondary statistics indicate that renewable energy has been positively integrated into the Spain economy. From 2010 to 2020, renewable energy integrated into most households in Spain and considerably lower energy costs among many households. Ideally, increased reliance on clean energy means that the country reduced its import reliance significantly. Since 2010, Spain’s import volume has been declining, especially with the increasing measures to increase renewable energy volume. Clean energy means that huge benefits have trickled down the economy, mainly in terms of export volume, climate change impacts, and overall economic growth. Renewable energy decreased the country’s overall import expenditure and considerably contributed to its GDP in the last five years. More so, employment grew by 3% between 2011 and 2020, with the renewable sector recording a record 81294 jobs in 2018 alone. An additional 2600 jobs are created annually, with another 145,000 indirect and direct jobs being reported in the economy. Wind power, for example, created roughly 1961 jobs, biofuels 158, photovoltaic 966, while mini-hydraulics and geothermal created 66 new jobs in 2018, with the number expected to grow annually and possibly double by 2030.

Clean energy has further opened new research efforts in the renewable energy sector. Currently, research and development (R&D) have increased with more initiatives to support and improve the clean energy sector fully. Clean energy is a development that must continue considering its trickle-down benefits. The research findings indicate that clean energy has contributed to Spain’s efforts of mitigating climate change impacts. Clean energy has created an eco-friendly environment, especially in local households, by allowing locals to cut down fossil fuels by a considerable percentage. Renewable energy further shows the potential to decrease greenhouse gas emissions and improve the quality of life in the long term. Coal, gas, and oil have declined slightly in consumption since 2010, meaning that the country is on a commendable pathway towards environmental consciousness. A significant percentage of Spaniards are opting for clean energy, which will allow the country to reduce more expenditure on fossil fuel imports and increase investment in renewable energy, which has proved to create jobs and significantly decrease the cost of accessing energy.

Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

In conclusion, based on the analysis, it is evident that energy use is fast-changing, and the need to fully transition to clean energy needs to happen faster not just in power generation but also in transport, heating, and building sectors. With the current renewable initiatives in Spain, clean and renewable sources could potentially supply about four-fifths of the nation’s electricity by 2040, massively promoting economic growth and cutting down greenhouse emissions by about 50%. Spain can become an “off the grid” nation, in the long term. Clean energy sources such as wind, hydropower, nuclear, and solar panels can increase people’s access to green energy, green jobs, and affordable sources of energy without excessive reliance on fossil fuels. The majority agree that clean energy sources are not only affordable but also environmentally friendly. Clean energy has significantly decreased carbon dioxide emission percentage in the past decade and subsequently allowed the locals to enjoy the massive benefits attached to green energy including economic expansion and environmental consciousness. The increasing dependence on clean energy means that the economic position of a country changes. Spain’s overall clean energy has increased in the past decade and this has subsequently led to a decrease in the country’s import volume. Increased renewable energy supply will allow the country to meet its local needs and possibly export some of the energy and in the process contribute to its GDP. Renewable energy further increases the country’s efforts towards environmental responsiveness particularly in decreasing the emission of greenhouse gases such as CO2. Over the past decade, Spain has been able to reduce its greenhouse gases and now ranks among the topmost environmentally responsive nations. This is particularly attributed to its decade-long investment in renewable energy.

5.2 Recommendation

Climate change is a significant issue and attaining long-term goals demands initiatives that allow a country to become self-sufficient and off the grid. Through continued investment and funding, Spain can remain clean energy-dependent. Spain can undertake several initiatives to increase renewable energy volume in the country further. First, the country can introduce targeted subsidies to empower both small companies seeking to pursue clean energy investments. Subsidies allow local companies and individuals to pursue clean energy opportunities, which benefits the entire society. Secondly, Spain needs to bring clean energy into mainstream society and enable people to realize further the trickle-down benefits of clean energy. Finally, Spain needs to strengthen its research, development, and innovation (R, D, & I). An increase in innovation and research allows the country to leverage available knowledge and opportunities and promote the country’s pursuit of clean and sustainable energy. Clean energy is beneficial to the country in both short and long-term periods, and therefore exploring ways to enhance its benefits further is only possible through non-stop research.

5.3 Future research outlook

The study demonstrates that increasing renewable sources of energy can trigger competitiveness and satisfy the energy needs, cutting down on greenhouse gas emissions, increase utilization of clean natural resources, and improve people’s overall wellbeing. However, while this research offers insights on the significant role of renewable energy in mitigating the impacts of climate change and improving the country’s economic position, it also sets room for further research, especially in establishing the causal relationship between clean energy and improved standard of living. This research study offers extensive opportunities to explore further the existing relationship between economic growth and clean energy. It also offers an opportunity to examine how a country can reduce its reliance on fossil fuels by tapping fully on renewable energy sources. Notably, this research is limited by low data space and less qualitative options. More must be done to explore the relationship between the identified variables in all respects.


Adewuyi, A. O., & Awodumi, O. B. (2017). Biomass energy consumption, economic growth, and carbon emissions: fresh evidence from West Africa using a simultaneous equation model. Energy, 119, 453-471.

Bekhet, H. A., Matar, A., & Yasmin, T. (2017). CO2 emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, and financial development in GCC countries: Dynamic simultaneous equation models. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 70, 117-132.

Cai, Y., Sam, C. Y., & Chang, T. (2018). Nexus between clean energy consumption, economic growth, and CO2 emissions. Journal of cleaner production, 182, 1001-1011.

Cantarero, M. M. V. (2020). Of renewable energy, energy democracy, and sustainable development: A roadmap to accelerate the energy transition in developing countries. Energy Research & Social Science, 70, 101716.

Chapman, A. J., & Itaoka, K. (2018). Energy transition to a future low-carbon energy society in Japan’s liberalizing electricity market: Precedents, policies, and factors of a successful transition. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 81, 2019-2027.

Emir, F., & Bekun, F. V. (2019). Energy intensity, carbon emissions, renewable energy, and economic growth nexus: new insights from Romania. Energy & Environment, 30(3), 427-443.

Essletzbichler, J. (2012). Renewable energy technology and path creation: A multi-scalar approach to energy transition in the UK. European Planning Studies, 20(5), 791-816.

Fotourehchi, Z. (2017). Clean energy consumption and economic growth: A case study for developing countries. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 7(2).

Franco, I. B., Power, C., & Whereat, J. (2020). SDG 7 affordable and clean energy. In Actioning the Global Goals for Local Impact (pp. 105-116). Springer, Singapore.

García, A. M., Gallagher, J., McNabola, A., Poyato, E. C., Barrios, P. M., & Díaz, J. R. (2019). Comparing the environmental and economic impacts of on-or off-grid solar photovoltaics with traditional energy sources for rural irrigation systems. Renewable Energy, 140, 895-904.

Garrett-Peltier, H. (2017). Green versus brown: Comparing the employment impacts of energy efficiency, renewable energy, and fossil fuels using an input-output model. Economic Modelling, 61, 439-447.

Jebli, M.B. and Youssef, S.B., 2017. The role of renewable energy and agriculture in reducing CO2 emissions: Evidence for North Africa countries. Ecological indicators, 74, pp.295-301.

Knuth, S. (2018). “Breakthroughs” for a green economy? Financialization and clean energy transition. Energy Research & Social Science, 41, 220-229.

Kumar, A., Ferdous, R., Luque-Ayala, A., McEwan, C., Power, M., Turner, B., & Bulkeley, H. (2019). Solar energy for all? Understanding the successes and shortfalls through a critical comparative assessment of Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Mozambique, Sri Lanka, and South Africa. Energy Research & Social Science, 48, 166-176.

Pao, H. T., Li, Y. Y., & Fu, H. C. (2014). Clean energy, non-clean energy, and economic growth in the MIST countries. Energy Policy, 67, 932-942.

Payam, F., & Taheri, A. (2018). Challenge of fossil energy and importance of investment in clean energy in Iran. Journal of Energy Management and Technology, 2(1), 1-8.

Polzin, F., Sanders, M., & Täube, F. (2017). A diverse and resilient financial system for investments in the energy transition. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 28, 24-32.

Quitzow, R., Thielges, S., Goldthau, A., Helgenberger, S., & Mbungu, G. (2019). Advancing a global transition to clean energy–the role of international cooperation. Economics, 13(1).[supanova_question]

WRT 1050 First Week Writing Sample Assignment Spend 45-60 minutes planning and

WRT 1050 First Week Writing Sample Assignment

Spend 45-60 minutes planning and writing a brief (500 words or so) essay in response to the ideas discussed below. Use the information provided in the prompt to guide your thinking and organize your thoughts into an argument that includes at least two supporting points. The essay you write should reflect your best effort to produce a clear, organized, and focused response to the prompt. Your audience is a professor in an introductory psychology class that you are taking.

Research indicates that mental health issues like anxiety are on the rise for college students across the United States. In a March 2018 Time Magazine article, journalist Katie Reilly cites research from the American College Health Association which found that “In spring 2017 . . . 61% of students said they had ‘felt overwhelming anxiety’ in the same time period.” Reilly goes on to list some sources of this anxiety. She quotes a college student athlete who says, “I was running myself so thin trying to be the best college student . . . It almost seems like they’re setting you up to fail because of the sheer amount of work and amount of classes you have to take at the same time, and how you’re also expected to do so much.” As this quote demonstrates, the overwhelming pressure is leaving many students in need of help to manage their stress levels.

Oakland University has tried to address the increasing stress of students on our own campus. A March 13, 2016 article in The Oakland Post suggests various strategies for reducing stress, including petting dogs at Kresge Library during finals week, getting exercise at the Campus Recreation Center, meditation, eating well, and getting enough sleep (Bomar).

What are your ideas about the causes of anxiety among college students today, from your own experience and the ideas in Bomar’s and Reilly’s articles? What are some best practices and specific initiatives that universities can pursue to help treat the causes and symptoms of these mental health problems that so many students experience? How do you manage stress, and what are some resources on campus that you might use if they were available?

Remember that this writing sample is not a free-write, brainstorm, or personal journal entry. The essay you write should reflect your best effort to produce a clear, focused response within the period allowed. You should reserve some time to edit and proofread your work before you submit your essay. This writing sample will be used to identify strengths and weaknesses in your writing so that we can set goals for improving your writing this semester.

Works Cited

Bomar, Alexus. “Furry Friends Can Help with Stress.” The Oakland Post,
13 Mar. 2016,

Reilly, Katie. “Record Numbers of College Students Are Seeking Treatment for Depression and Anxiety — But Schools Can’t Keep Up.” Time, 19 Mar. 2018,[supanova_question]