In 1914, Ernest Shackleton set sail aboard the Endurance with a

In 1914, Ernest Shackleton set sail aboard the Endurance with a crew of 27 men – their goal to be the first team ever to cross the continent of Antarctica. While not successful in achieving their initial trans-Antarctic dreams, the Endurance expedition, its crew, and its leader – Ernest Shackleton – have nevertheless gone down as one of the greatest stories of human survival, teamwork, and leadership in the history of human exploration.

In this activity, you will explore the details of the Endurance expedition and you will examine its leader, Sir Ernest Shackleton, and his actions through the course of the expedition through the lens of different leadership theories discussed in your management textbook. Your instructor will provide you with directions for obtaining this background case information about Shackleton’s Endurance expedition (i.e., a case reading, and/or video documentary about the expedition shown in class or link to online video to watch prior to class). After reviewing the case reading (or video), you will conduct the case analysis portion of the assignment by completing the table (please see below under “Case Analysis”), of examples from the Shackleton case which illustrate the different leadership theories from your textbook.

Activity Steps

• Step 1: Review the textbook chapter on leadership, focusing on different theories and perspectives on what makes a “great leader great.” Specifically, make sure to understand the key defining concepts behind the “trait-based,” “behavior-based” and “contingency” or “situational” theories of leadership.

• Step 2: Read the Shackleton Endurance case materials provided to you by your instructor.

• Step 3: Conduct “Case Analysis” by completing formatted APA paper of at least 2-5 pages of leadership theories, examples from the Shackleton case illustrating each theory, and your rationale for how/why each example fits with the given leadership theory. Include a title page and reference page also in current APA format.
• Step 4: Be prepared to share one of your examples (and rationale) during the class discussion/debrief of the assignment.

Written Case Summary – Shackleton’s Endurance Expedition

On December 5th, 1914 the Endurance set sail on an expedition to be the first to cross the Antarctica. The expedition was led by Sir Ernest Shackleton, the brainchild of the mission who not only raised its funding by marketing to wealthy investors, but also recruited and hand-selected the crew of 27 men. Amongst the reportedly 5000 responding to Shackleton’s recruitment advertisement noting the treacherous nature of the mission, Shackleton interviewed and selected his crew members, basing his decision not only on their technical skills and abilities but also on those personality characteristics and aspects of temperament Shackleton deemed most important for teamwork, stamina, and resilience.

On January 18th, 1915, little more than one month into the expedition, the mission went awry, the Endurance becoming stuck in pack ice before it was to reach its intended destination of Vahsel Bay, Antarctica. Initial attempts to free the Endurance by digging it from the pack ice were ordered by Shackleton, whose journals indicate to later scholars of the expedition that his purposes in ordering the digging efforts were mostly for the purpose of keeping the men productive and allowing them to see for themselves the futility of such attempts. Indeed, the men soon abandoned their efforts to release the ship from the pack ice, resolving to wait out the months until the ice melt camped aboard the Endurance. To pass the time and keep up spirits, Shackleton enforced daily routines and chores (even when the performance of chores arguably was not necessary from a practical standpoint). Moreover, the delegation of chores amongst the crew was egalitarian and without regard for the men’s titles, rank, or role on the mission; Shackleton had scientist, surgeon, and sailor alike scrubbing floors, cooking, and performing any type of work for which they were able. Socialization and team-building also were made part of daily life during this time, with nightly sing-alongs in “The Ritz” dining facilities on the Endurance and dogsled races and other games and competitions outside on the ice during the days. From Endurance Captain, Frank Worsley’s journal (cited in Martens [supanova_question]

involvement in POLAND Essay

Visit the World Health Organization (Links to an external site.) website. Choose a health topic and filter by the country you selected for your Country Presentation. Prepare a 400-500 word document explaining the health topic and how it affects the population of the country from your presentation.

Assess what influence cultural factors play in health outcomes. For example, if we look at the United States, we will find that the leading cause of death is heart disease. In this case, how might the incidence of heart disease be linked to culture (and not simply lifestyle choices)? Think about the cultural significance of working in the US. How are those who do not work viewed? What about the idea of the American Dream? How might this lead people to overwork, stress, and potentially neglect of health?

Apply similar questions to your country in analyzing how the country’s cultural factors influence this health topic. When summarizing a source or directly quoting a source, be sure to include an in-text citation in the paper itself. On a separate page, include your “References” in current APA format. Each in-text citation should correspond with an entry on the “References” page.


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who has led a change effort

Using the research you conducted in 4-2, discuss any four of the six elements below:

What were the drivers or reasons for the leader to initiate a change effort?
What were the hindrances or obstacles that emerged during the change effort?
What did you find as the key role the leader had to take in the beginning of the change effort?
What was the communication channel the leader used to initiate the change effort?
How did the organizational culture play a role in the success or failure of the change effort?
What did you learn about the leader you researched that surprised you the most?

4-2: The concept of creating changes in a company is technical due to the challenge that comes with it. However, if the process is diligently performed, the results can be encouraging. Change efforts are still challenging to implement due to the absence of resources, leading to blockage and delayed implementations. To effectively accomplish organizational change efforts, leaders must help in the sustenance of momentum and institutionalization of the change process in several ways. If the leaders fail to offer the assistance tools, the organization will suffer from poor planning and inadequate resources, leading to its untimely death.

Therefore, before an organization decides to change leaders, it is good to analyze whether it is ready for the new leaders’ current change because they are eventually coming with new ideas that will elevate its status. This is visible in the education sector, as seen in the perspectives of the business school depicted in this study, in the organization studies, and in the management field. The samples have varying organizational factors but, their efforts, fears, and pain are felt equally by the people surrounding them.

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