Running Head: IMPACT OF COVID-19 1


The Covid-19 pandemic resulting from SARS-CoV-21 has disrupted the global social, economic, and health welfare through an unparalleled proportion throughout modern history. Covid-19 was first reported to the WHO on the 31st of December, 2019. World Health Organization declared the virus a global medical emergency outbreak the following day. The virus is spread via daily contact with diverse individuals. Thus, besides health-protective restrictions like border closures, lockdowns, human tracing, and social distancing, social protective regulation is developed to mitigate the spread of the virus. This paper discusses four areas of regional and urban issues associated with the effect of the virus, including the lockdowns and border closures, housing, and social distancing. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant losses across all regions and businesses. However, there are long-term and short-term losses that have been experienced. The long-term impacts include; the long-term societal effects, optimism, and fear, change in consumer behavior, human resources will be embraced and increased inequalities.

Throughout the pandemic, many cities incorporated measures to implement lockdowns where individuals were required to be resourceful from their homes. Throughout the lockdowns, numerous corporations had opted for WFH (working from home) approach where workers did not need to visit their workplaces. However, this impact of the virus resulted in diverse working, schooling, and leisure activity methods (Kang, 2020). Through lockdowns, there emerged significant adjustments within the patterns of consumption. Moreover, general retail departments’ e-commerce had tripled within April 2020, whereas the demand for delivery and pick-up services associated with online shopping augmented.

According to a study performed within England, individuals’ interest in living within the rural and suburban areas has increased due to the virus. This interest is derived from the need for a less dense population, unlike the density within cities. Also, a residence that has a home offices section has increased. However, suppose the society after the pandemic is centered on an educational setting and flexible work structures of discerning remote classes that do not need daily traveling. In that case, renewed standards for suburban areas will increase (Kang, 2020). With such adjustments, numerous education and work will begin to occur within an individual’s home. The relevance will be centered on the surrounding spaces and residences conducive to education and employment.

Movement restrictions and distancing measures are regularly regarded as “lockdowns,” where they can reduce the rate of the virus’s transmission through restricting contact between individuals. These measures can disproportionately impact disadvantaged groups, including migrants, individuals in poverty, IDPs that regularly within the under-resourced and overcrowded environment, and rely on everyday labor for survival. Moreover, this measure might substantially negatively affect people, societies, and communities by bringing economic and social life to a nearer stop (Søreide et al., 2020). World Health Organization recognizes that, throughout various points, nations have needed to provide stay-at-home orders along with other measures (WHO, 2020).

For a pandemic-hit region or city like Wuhan located in China, the traveling out or in the area was clogged. Moreover, numerous nations announced the closing of every border temporarily to deal with the hazardous disease outbreak. Border closures and lockdown impact the international value chain (Søreide et al., 2020). When some nations begin limiting crosswise trade borders, diverse countries are expected to follow the route; thus weakening the economy’s recovery. The impact of border closure was felt through various categories: imports and exports, legal immigration; travel; cross-border shopping; and illegal immigration.

Housing affordability relies fundamentally on the association between the cost of annual occupancy of suburban units as per their quality ($O) and the metropolitan-level home annual capacity to pay distribution ($A). Thus, housing affordability results from both the labor and housing markets (Kang, 2020). There has been a direct and essential impact regarding labor demand through the virus, resulting in an increase in job losses and a significant decrease in both $A and median household revenue.

Due to lack of infection concerns and job opportunities, few homes would consider short and long-distance travel throughout the pandemic time. Moreover, the virus has brought about increased issues in housing supply chains and decreased home construction. Homes that are susceptible to housing dangers will mostly be comprised of individuals affected by the labor market. Some homes, particularly within retail, entertainment, and hospitality sectors, experience a decreased $A close to 0 where the houses can’t recompense their mortgages or rents (Kang, 2020). Most of these homes will be needed to decrease to 0 through “doubling-up” with diverse family friends or members or moving to less sufficient housing. The inequality within the accommodation has been viewed as a problem throughout the civic health tragedy throughout the pandemic.

There has been ample evidence regarding the critical organization between housing adequacies along with protection against the virus. Throughout Mumbai, the informal regions have faced severe medical problems due to inadequate sanitation and water access and the intense pollution of the air, where it has now turned to a Covid-19 hotspot. Maintaining sheltering safely and social distance against respiratory pathogens is impossible within these poor housing situations. Also, within different better-off regions, various long-term care amenities that accommodate individuals with a disability and the elderly have shown signs of unsafe. 

The other impact of Covid-19 is the need for the incorporation of technology. Utilizing human tracing for response and identification of infection routes amongst people demonstrates the problem of discretion invasion. Several digital technologies types mean to decrease the Covid-19 spread, like the proximity tracing instruments that have been broadly implemented and developed. Amongst them is the DP3T “Decentralized Privacy-Preserving Proximity Tracing” and the PEPP-PT “Decentralized Privacy-Preserving Proximity Tracing,” which is regarded as an ideal approach, which reflects the privacy protection principles (Kang, 2020). Implementing a similar structure, Google and Apple jointly demonstrated a PPCT “Privacy-Preserving Contact Tracing” application. 

These applications are designed carefully to secure an individual’s privacy. Devices such as Bluetooth communications are recorded where a close contact data history is maintained. Every 15 minutes, unsystematic Bluetooth ID switches, whereas the structure uses pseudonyms; therefore, privacy is highly secured. The contact data stays within the gadget for the epidemiological assessment period that is typically a few weeks. If an operator test positive, potentially infected people will be informed through the documented Bluetooth contact antiquity. This notification might be automatically made via the operator’s device below the decentralized structure, ensuring high privacy. This procedure is entirely dependent on the voluntary participation y users that consent towards deciphering the recorded information.

Long term impacts of the pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant losses across all regions and businesses. However, there are long-term and short-term losses that have been experienced. The long-term impacts include; the long-term societal effects, optimism, fear, change in consumer behavior, human resources will be embraced, and increased inequalities. There is long-term societal impact; they include consumer behavior changes, inequality worsening, the roles of technology, and the nature of work. The above aspect in home and workplaces will change life for many years for individuals, society, and the workforce. Their crisis has social dimensions inclusive of continued stress, and people will feel generational frictions worldwide. The societal consequences will be created and handled in a long time (John, 2020).

Optimism and fear: for the business community, there has been a provision that has ensured support for their customers and employees. In other sectors worldwide, the combination of fiscal and furloughing policies has helped put the economies on hold. As the countries are emerging from the current health crisis and their economies are restarting, work practices are changing, changed attitudes in traveling, consumption, and commuting will change prospects of employment. In the present assessments, labor organizations have identified informal sectors and SMEs are likely to have difficulties recovering and sustaining business. 

There will be changes in consumer behaviors: currently, the behaviors are already changing, and going into the future, there are likely to change in other ways unknown yet. As we are visibly in the stabilization stage, businesses have already started feeling consumer behavior changes. There has been a gradual decrease in consumers’ expenditure, and it is expected to continue more towards the future. Expenditure has changed where the consumers are now focused on their needs more than they want; this shift will hugely affect businesses and economies.

Human resources will be essential: working remotely risks isolation, smoking, alcohol dependency, and poor ergonomic postures. In the past, employers assumed that it was safe to monitor their employees at the workplaces, but now to thrive and survive, they are forced t let them work from home. The human resource department has come in handy in dealing with such issues. This will be a long-term change in attitudes in the historic private vs. public debate (John, 2020). 

The effect will slow down the return to pre-COVID-19 times, a lengthy and challenging task. There is no particular working drug or vaccination that has proved to be workable in the long term. Hence, governments will make considerable investments in the health sector and research centers moving into the future. The uncertainty is going to affect some sectors example, hospitality and tourism. Due to the uncertain nature of the disease, we will not see all the laid-off employees getting back to work in the future. Hence the challenge of returning to normal can be viewed as psychological as it is economical. 

Moving into the future, there will be a need to reconcile the fears that the people have. The concern will loom around for a long time as there are border restrictions and red zones on our planet; there are situations that may still call for lockdowns, hence in the long-term, people will have to deal with the present uncertainties. The government is working on sending the infection rates data and the risks involved in exposure to people; this, in turn, has created fears for individuals. The alleged absence of transparency may cause erosion of trust in the world and generate more enormous complications (John, 2020).

Are inequalities there here to stay? The speed and timing of economic recovery may depend on the health crisis solutions, but it is likely to cause mental health issues, inequality, and depletion of societal cohesion. The wealth gap between the old and the young is more likely to increase and pose employment and educational challenges that may risk a generation of youth getting lost due to the present conditions. The pandemic has already hit most poor people and socially disadvantaged people in a more significant way. In most places, individuals are faced with the moral dilemmas of getting to work to get money for their daily expenditure or to stay at their homes to avoid the virus while protecting their families. Continued exposure for essential workers to health risks whore are mostly paid low raise a concern of increased deaths for this group members. In the future, more inequalities will be exposed as the pandemic has made some issues clearer and brought them to the picture. 

The societal disruption and lockdowns will affect the mental health of youths and young adults and their well-being. There will be more trying times for the children moving into the future as there will be reduced opportunities in the employment sector. This is a danger in the future as we can be almost sure it will take a toll on the health of many youths who had expectations and set goals. In developing countries, it might be worse as the unemployment levels are rising, which may cause unrest in the future. 

There may be inequality in education moving forward. There is a current on and off mode of schooling for students across the world. In developing countries, there are no tools that will ensure online studies will take place from home. This possibility of educational inequality among the female gender will mostly be a disadvantage in the labor market; hence, inequality will be magnified (John, 2020).

The effects of past pandemics.

Influenza was an example from 1918 to 1920. The researchers analyzed the mortality data of the world and their GDP. The mortality rates varied in different regions as others-imposed quarantine ad others did not. There is no specific region where the flu originated, but it became more associated with Spain since Spain was the first to report it. There were many deaths recorded due to the pandemic. Hence, we can tell among the effects of the past pandemics is the loss of lives.

The research suggested a reduction of per capita by a six percent margin and the consumption by the private sectors by 8%; these declines are almost similar to those experienced in the 2009-2008 recession. The pandemic affected the per capita of the people across the world, but the more sophisticated countries that we’re able to implement quarantine were not affected as much as others (Steve, 2020). 

A decline in economic activities combined with increased inflations resulted in stock returns (Steve, 2020). The stocks fell significantly for the regions that were not equipped in the health sector. There were losses financially for almost all areas, but in the end, some parts felt the loss more than others, depending on the policies their governments had put in place.

There was inequality; the regions were all hit by influenza simultaneously, but the losses were different. Some countries were hit hard than others, dependent on their health policies and abilities to deal with the crisis. Regions that we could recover faster meant that they were in business and thriving while others were struggling with deaths and economic losses.


The past and present pandemics all show how there is inequality in the time of the pandemic. Moving forward, there should be calls to ensure equality to curb the long-term effects of the pandemic. The societal disruption and lockdowns will affect the mental health of youths and young adults and their well-being. There will be more trying times for the children moving into the future as there will be reduced opportunities in the employment sector. The government predicts a return to normalcy over time but also insists it will take time. The effects should be fought by all sectors from the government, the private sectors, and individuals. The government is keen on setting up strategies that will help ensure businesses get back and run. Supporting businesses will ensure employment levels are retained over time hence reducing the expected loss in jobs. There are expectations for the numbers to increase in the future since the vaccine is not yet embraced wholly and its efficiency is not yet proven.


John Scott. (2020). What risks does COVID-19 pose to society in the long term? Retrieved from

Kang, M., Choi, Y., Kim, J., Lee, K. O., Lee, S., Park, I. K., … & Seo, I. (2020). COVID-19 impact on city and region: what’s next after lockdown?. international journal of urban sciences, 24(3), 297-315.

Steve Maas. (2020). Social and Economic Impacts of the 1918 Influenza Epidemic. Retrieved from

Søreide, K., Hallet, J., Matthews, J. B., Schnitzbauer, A. A., Line, P. D., Lai, P. B. S., … & Lorenzon, L. (2020). The immediate and long-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on delivery of surgical services. Journal of British Surgery, 107(10), 1250-1261.

World Health Organization. (2020, December 31). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Herd immunity, lockdowns and COVID-19. WHO | World Health Organization. Retrieved October 22, 2021, from[supanova_question]

Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY The Assignment must be submitted on


The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated folder.

Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.

Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.

Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.

Late submission will NOT be accepted.

Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks.

All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font.

Submissions without cover page will NOT be accepted.

CLO: Develop the ability to rise to ethical issues and challenges in the context of public management.

We expect you to answer each question as per instructions in the assignment. You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind. The assignment with be evaluated in terms of your planning, organization and the way you present your assignment. All the three section will carry equal weightage

Kindly read the instruction carefully and prepare your assignment accordingly.

1) Planning: Read the assignments carefully, go through the Units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange them in a logical order. (1.5 Marks)

2) Organisation: Be a little selective and analytical before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. Give adequate attention to question’s introduction and conclusion. (1.5 Marks)

Make sure that:

a) The answer is logical and coherent

b) It has clear connections between sentences and paragraphs

c) The presentation is correct in your own expression and style.

3) Presentation: Once you are satisfied with your answer, you can write down the final version for submission. If you so desire, you may underline the points you wish to emphasize. Make sure that the answer is within the stipulated word limit. (2 Marks)

Write an essay in about 1000-1200 words on the following topic.

Provide a statement explaining your own personal code of ethics. Include at least 4 codes in your answer with enough explanation and examples. Refer to concepts learned in class or in the textbook and link them to your justification.

In addition, discuss whether personal code of ethics could clash with organizational ethics. Some people believe, that personal ethics and organization’s ethics are two different and unrelated concepts. Others, believe that personal ethics should be applied to organization’s ethics. Is it possible that our personal beliefs and ethics are applicable to our work? Discuss.

Important: You are required to present at least three scholarly journals to support your answers[supanova_question]

Personal Responsibility Rubric Formatted by the DCCCD in alignment with the AAC&U

Personal Responsibility Rubric

Formatted by the DCCCD in alignment with the AAC&U VALUE rubrics.


The Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board describes Personal Responsibility to include “the ability to connect choices, actions and consequences to ethical decision-making.”

Framing Language

This rubric is designed to assess the Core Objective (Personal Responsibility) as described by the THECB in the Texas Core Curriculum. In past attempts to assess Personal Responsibility, different faculty have focused on factors ranging from understanding and avoiding plagiarism to being on time for class. When the THECB defined the new core objectives, the DCCCD decided to use the five VALUE rubrics created by the AAC&U for the assessment of Personal and Social Responsibility. These rubrics were determined to be ineffective for assessing Personal and Social Responsibility as they are defined by the THECB. A team of representatives from each of the Colleges of the DCCCD met several times over the summer of 2016 to develop two new rubrics for assessing these two objectives in the next cycle of assessment.

The focus of our discussions were centered on the definition of Personal Responsibility as described by the THECB. We also researched other colleges around the country with varying results. Ultimately, we wanted to create a rubric that would assess a student’s ability to work through an ethical decision making process. The ideal assignment will be a written essay that is long enough to address all three criteria. This rubric was created to fit well in a signature assignment that assesses more than one core objective simultaneously.

Glossary – the definitions that follow were developed to clarify terms and concepts used in this rubric only.

Understanding Ethical Choices – The student is able to thoroughly discuss at least two sides of an ethical choice to be made.

Decision-Making – The student is able to state a position on the issue with more detailed explanation and/or reasons for the position and addresses objections to their position.

Consequences – The student is able to identify consequences and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the scope, complexity and/or magnitude of the consequences.

Personal Responsibility (PR) – ability to connect choices, actions and consequences to ethical decision-making




Below Benchmark






Understanding Ethical Choices

Student thoroughly discusses at least two sides of an ethical choice to be made.

Student thoroughly discusses one side and partially describes another side of an ethical choice to be made.

Student partially explains two sides of an ethical choice to be made.

Student attempts to explain only one side of an ethical choice to be made.

Student is unable to articulate an ethical choice to be made.


Student states a position on the issue with more detailed explanation and/or reasons for the position and addresses objections to their position.

Student states a position on the issue with more detailed explanation and/or reasons for the position.

Student states a position on the issue, but only provides limited explanation and/or reasons for the position.

Student states a position on the issue without providing any reasons for the position.

Student does not take a clear ethical position on the issue.


Student identifies consequences and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the scope, complexity and/or magnitude of the consequences.

Student identifies consequences and demonstrates a moderate understanding of the scope, complexity and/or magnitude of the consequences.

Student identifies consequences of the choices, but demonstrates a limited understanding of the scope, complexity and/or magnitude of the consequences.

Student identifies the obvious consequences of each choice.

Student does not identify any consequences of the choices available[supanova_question]

Marks for each question are provided. Sub-question carries equal marks. You need

Writing Assignment Help Marks for each question are provided. Sub-question carries equal marks.

You need to upload the log file and the word document (with answers to questions below) on Canvas.

Try to be concise.

The dataset is provided by the Department of Culture, Arts, and Leisure and is about sports participation in Northern Ireland.

Below there is a description of the main variables in the dataset.

variable name


variable label



sports participation – 1 if participate in activity



1 if male



individual age



1 if he has a car



1 if volunteer



if attended any sporting event



1 if employed






1 if long illness



1 if married



1 if has a degree



1 if has an a-level



1 if has no qualifications



1 if on benefit



1 if smoke



1 if drinks



1 if professional



1 if skilled labour



1 if lives in belfast



1 if goes to library



1 if goes to museum



1 if attends art-shows



distance from school

Start with some data description (Marks 20)

Summarize sportpart sex age employ degree smoke skilled belfast and provide some comments on the most important statistics of these variables (one/two lines).

Check the pairwise correlation between age library museum arts skilled volun age emply and provide comments on the cross-correlation between variables. Are there variables which are strongly correlated which you would not use together in a regression? What would be the problem with using variables which are strongly correlated? (one/two lines).

Use a categorical plot to show the average probability of sports participation (“sportpart”) by whether the individual has a degree (“degree”). Provide comments on the probability of sports participation by degree (one/two lines).

Compute the difference in mean in sports participation by “degree”. What is the average sports participation for the two groups? What is the difference? Is the difference statistically significant?

Use a scatter plot to plot the variable sportpart against age and fit a linear relationship between sportpart and age. What is the relationship between sports participation and age? Does the fitted model look ok? (one/two lines).

Heteroscedasticity (Marks 24)

Run a regression of sports participation “sportpart” against sex degree smoke belfast employ age. Predict the error from this model and generate the error squared. Now run a regression of the error squared against sex degree smoke belfast employ age and test for heteroscedasticity. What is the null hypothesis? What is the alternative hypothesis? Do you reject the null? At what significance level? (one/two lines).

Use the same regression model in (2.a) and use the built-in command in STATA to carry out the Breush-Pagan test of heteroscedasticity. What is the null hypothesis? Do you reject the null? (one/two lines).

Carry out for the model above (2.b) the White-LM test of test of heteroscedasticity. What is the null hypothesis? Do you reject the null? (one/two lines).

What is the difference between the Breush-Pagan and the White-LM test? What would you add to the model in (2.a) if you were to repeat the same steps as in (2.a) to carry out the White-LM test? (one/two lines).

Linear Probability Model vs Probit model (Marks 36)

Use a Linear Probability Model (LPM) to estimate the relation between sports participation “sportpart” and the variables “sex degree smoke belfast employ age married museum arts”. Explain which variables are significant and at what significance level. (one/two lines).

Perform a test of joint significance for variables that in the model above are not statistically significant (one/two lines).

Interpret the estimated effect “degree, age and smoke” on sports participation. Remember that this is a linear probability model and the estimated effect has a precise meaning. (one/two lines).

Now estimate the same model in (3.a) using a Probit Model. Compute the Marginal Effects and interpret the estimated effect of “degree, age and smoke” from the marginal effects. (one/two lines).

Use the ROC curve to comment on the fit of the model. (one/two lines).

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the linear probability model.

Instrumental Variable (Marks 20)

Whether the individual has a degree or not may be endogenous (i.e. correlated with the error). Use the distance from schools (“distance”) as an instrument for “degree” to estimate a Two-Stage Least Square Estimator (2SLS) using the same control variables as in 3.a. Therefore the dependent variable for this model is sports participation. The control variables are: “sex smoke belfast employ age married museum arts”. Degree is the endogenous variable and distance from schools (“distance”) is the instrument. What are the two conditions the instrument must satisfy and how can you test whether these conditions hold? (one/two lines).

Comment the test of weak identification of the model above. Is the instrument strong or weak? How do you decide? (one/two lines).

Interpret the estimated effect of degree and compare it with the one estimated in (2.a). (one/two lines).

Why do you think the estimated effect of degree on the probability of sports participation from the 2SLS differs from the one estimated using the LPM? [supanova_question]

2 Data Collection and Ethical Concerns– Teen Homelessness Joan Ruiz-Werkema Capella University


Data Collection and Ethical Concerns– Teen Homelessness

Joan Ruiz-Werkema

Capella University


Dr. Rebecca Ferrer

November 4, 2021

Data Collection and Ethical Concerns– Teen Homelessness


This chapter is broken into two sections and sets the context for the research. The first section covers a brief overview of Teen Homelessness task in RCA and the leadership challenges of the task force. Following that, there is a discussion on how RCA improve diversity in its leadership for the teen homelessness task force and how the organization can improve the leadership and management qualities of the task force and reach more homeless teens in Riverbend City. The second section talks about ethical implications of the study.

Teens Homelessness Task Force

In the Ruby Lake neighborhood in Riverbend City, there is a high rate of homeless teens. Therefore, Riverbend Community Association formed a Task Force known as Teen Homelessness task force. The goal of the Task Force is to develop a better understanding of the breadth and causes of homelessness among teenagers in Riverbend City, as well as the procedures in place to combat homelessness. It also aims to take into account a variety of community issues and proposals. The Task Force hopes to create a list of short-term and long-term activities that Riverbend City community can do to solve these concerns.

Leadership Challenges in Teens Homelessness Task Force

The current model of leadership employed by the task force is known as bureaucratic. According to Abbasi (2017), bureaucratic leadership is characterized as a style of leadership in which a hierarchy of power establishes management and decision-making procedures. This kind of leadership renders the task for ineffective in dealing with the issue of teen homelessness in Riverbend city. Absence of diversity in the task force’s leadership has led to emergence of conflicting groups within its membership thus making it almost impossible for the members to work cohesively. Leaders have failed to motivate and steer the members towards working on alleviation of teen homelessness within Riverbend City, which is the task force’s primary objective. On bigger picture, the same scenario has spiraled into other Riverbend Community Association, making the organization unresponsive to community needs.

Data collection and Data reporting model

Data for the study was collected from members of the task force and homeless teens in Riverbend City through a qualitative data collection method. Qualitative data collection technique involves the use of methods that are exploratory in nature, with the goal of acquiring insights and knowledge into underlying reasons and motives. Participants were given questionnaires containing open ended questions which required explanatory responses. According to Smiley (2019), a qualitative data collection technique enables researchers to obtain insights in to behavioral and thought patterns of the participants. Due to the increasing efficiency and transparency in reviewing the synthesis of guidelines for qualitative research, the researchers decided to delineate the data assessment process Hudspeth (2016). Thematic data synthesis method was adopted to help the researchers realize the primary goal of the study, which was to identify how diversity can be enhanced in the leadership of teen homelessness task force. Original and published peer-reviewed research papers on leadership diversity in Riverbend City Association were included in the study.

Members of Teen Homelessness task force were recruited as participants for the study. Various teenagers were also interviewed with the aim of obtaining their view on the impact of the task force on their lives. Furthermore, no data limitations have been challenged. The research included trials that included homeless and transgender youth over the age of 15 as well as experienced social workers to provide emotional and physical care (Miller, 2011). In addition, for the sake of this study project’s assessment and evaluation, homeless youths are defined as those who live in temporary hostels or lodgings or on the streets. The homeless transgender people who took part in the study didn’t have to be in any life-threatening situations. They needed to be able to voice their feelings about diversity and teen care, though.

Data Reporting Model

The Reporting Data Model is a multi-dimensional model that enables customized reporting of research data. Dimensional modeling, an example of reporting data model, is a data warehousing approach that exposes an information model based on business processes while allowing for report generation flexibility (Berner et al., 2020). In the study, PostgreSQL relational database management system, version 9.0.13, is used to implement the dimensional modeling.

Ethical Implications

Relationship of Researcher and Participants

Research work has recently been facing an upsurge in concerns about the relationship between the participants and the researchers.  There have been attempts to develop a mutual and democratic connection between a research participant and a research scholar. Conversation about who is in charge of the research agenda, and transfers in lower and higher positions of knowledge have emerged as significant topics in the field of research (Råheim et al., 2016). In the study of how improved diversification in Riverbend City, the researcher-participant relationship was asymmetrical in the sense that the asymmetry worked both ways: the researchers held a greater with respect to the other participants of project planning and leadership, while the participants had a better understanding of the topic.

Necessity for Researchers to gain participants’ permission

Ethics regulations apply to researchers. For instance, researchers cannot gather information from kids without the approval of their parents or guardians.  To be a part of a study, all volunteers must give their permission and be provided with the necessary information in order to make an informed consent to participate (Lane, 2013). This implies that participants must have access to all the information they need to know about the study so they can voluntarily decide whether or not they want to participate. In most circumstances, informed consent is given in writing; but, in certain cases, the research participant’s completion of a task such as a questionnaire is sufficient. In the Riverbend City research, consent was obtained from members of the Teen Homelessness task force.

How researchers were protected participants from harm

In order to ensure that the research participants were protected from harm throughout the research period, the researchers developed a plan that constituted several effective elements. There was a detailed description of characters of the population being observed. This included recording of the expected number, range of age and the state of their health. There was also an explanation of the rationale of the participation of various classes of special persons with disabilities and sexual orientation, pregnant teenagers, teenagers with mental disorders as well as the teenagers who were likely to be vulnerable to undue peer influence and coercion. A description of probable risks that included physical, social and psychological risks were assessed and the likelihood of occurrence determined. Where sensitive data search as age was required, the participants were advised to remain anonymous.

Data storage and access

During the research investigation and after publication, the data was kept for around three years. Due to the researcher’s age, the information gathered could only be shared with the members of teen homelessness task force, study’s social workers and researchers. Sharing the obtained data with members of human social care organizations will aid in the development of strategies for supporting homeless youths and improving their living conditions. It will also broaden their awareness in terms of diversity.


In conclusion, this study considers how the problem of leadership might be addressed by using ethical reasoning to make the best judgments. Teen homelessness is prevalent among youths in Ruby Lake Riverbend City, and it has a significant physical and mental impact on them. As a result of good leadership models, members of the task force program will engage a group of homeless teenagers with a variety of personalities. In addition, teaching members on gender identity and sexual orientation will be an important component of training them on how to deal with homeless people who are gay or lesbian. It will help to alleviate Riverbend City’s high incidence of teen homelessness. Furthermore, while the task force searches for a new leader, the group should consider selecting someone who is devoted to the program and has a varied set of abilities to assist the organization’s other researchers in mitigating and combating the concerns of teen homelessness and heterogeneity.


Abbasi, B. (2017). Transformational leadership and change readiness and a moderating role of perceived bureaucratic structure: an empirical investigation. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 15(1), 35–44.

Berner, R., Doyle, R., & Lamar, K. (2020). The Data Reporting Challenge: U.S. Swap Data Reporting and Financial Market Infrastructure. SSRN Electronic Journal. Published.

Hudspeth, B. (2016). A Case Study: The Factors Associated With Student Homelessness. Digital commons ACU.


Lane, J. A. (2013). The Ethical Implication of Bartering for Mental Health Services: Examining Interdisciplinary Ethical Standards. Michigan Journal of Counseling: Research, Theory, and Practice, 39(2), 4–12.

Miller, P, M. (2016). A Critical Analysis of the Research on Student Homelessness. Review of educational research, 81(3). DOI:

Råheim, M., Magnussen, L. H., Sekse, R. J. T., Lunde, S., Jacobsen, T., & Blystad, A. (2016). Researcher–researched relationship in qualitative research: Shifts in positions and researcher vulnerability. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being, 11(1), 30996.

Smiley, D. (2019). Riverbend Houses. In N. Bloom & M. Lasner (Ed.), Affordable Housing in New York (pp. 215-218). Princeton: Princeton University Press.[supanova_question]

IS3310 Draft IRP

In this assignment, you’ll be specifying the research question that you plan to investigate for your IRP. You can choose any question and data source that you find interesting.
First of all, you identified the data set you wanted to use, developed a research question, and identified a statistical question that could be answered analytically. You need to find the data (Excel format) (about100 rows?and finish “IRP question and data set template” and send it to me asap. I will submit it to the professor to ask whether the data is useful.
Then? students conduct an analysis project using SAS primarily and Excel as needed to analyze real-world data. Note: You are required to do a ANOVA Analysis or a Regression Analysis and submit them showing Pr or P values, R-square, B values, Plots, etc. – as needed for the type of analysis you are conducting (ANOVA or Regression). Homogeneity of Variance of residuals can be assumed so you can proceed with your required analysis. Use DAX 4 or DAX 5 video and Instructions to help conduct your analysis.
You need to finish the “IRP Template 2018” and give it to me. The picture is standard for evaluation.
PPT is issues with Data.