Professor: Dr. Neil Leach
November 20, 2021
Bosch Connected World Prof. Amnon Shashua, Co-Founder, Chairman and CTO, Mobileye
What is the role of artificial intelligence in the design of self-driving cars?
Years back when thinking about developing car autopilot systems, the first approach was a series of 3D sensors that would detect vehicles, pedestrians, and the environment around the car. The next sped would be to integrate all the detected objects and put them in a high precision mapping system, however, getting all these 2D information into a 3D mapping would be too complicated to accomplish.
A more successful approach has been to has dual cameras to detect other vehicles and pedestrian as well as the drivable paths. The use of multiples cameras to detect the environment automatically get all the information in a 3D data, which can be combined with the image space.
Tesla Self-Driving AI Development
Among the components that allow Tesla cars is the vision aspect, which counts with eight cameras positioned around the vehicles. These cameras take the raw information from the images of the surroundings. The information is then process in real time through what the company calls vector space. A three-dimensional representation of the surroundings and context created by the cameras is evaluated by the AI software to take decisions while the car is in autopilot or self-driving mode.
The data that is extracted from these images have a huge amount of information that is all process at the same time, from edges, curves, lines, signs, and traffic lights to pedestrian and vehicular direction and speed.
The process of the development of the Autopilot system is supposed to be like building a synthetic animal from scratch. The car scenes the environment, moves around and act autonomous and intelligently. Just how an animal would receive light that hit its eyes and convert it into an image using optic nerves and the brain, Tesla cars have a similar process. The light is received through the camera lenses into the sensor, where the images are rendered and sent to the chip to be processed. The way that the program is so accurate when reading the images lies in the way that the images are conceived. It used a process called Multi-Scale Feature Pyramid Fusion, which uses a residual neural network to create several residual bocks organized as regnets that have multiples layers of a single image. In bottom of the image spectrum, the image contains high resolution information with low channel counts, on the top of the spectrum, the image has low resolution especially with high channel counts. With the use of pyramid networks, the image is process in different scales back and forth to read all the information in it more efficiently. In addition, they also have a process called Multi-Task Learning “HydraNets”, which have a common shared backbone and branches off into several heads called hydro nets. Each of these heads is designed to work in a task independently from the other hydro nets, which allows the system to change the state of a task in isolation without affecting any of the other tasks.
In the next images, can be seen several predictions that the car is making.
The images show a variety of existing conditions around it, which is transformed to data for the AI to take decisions by itself or announce warnings to the driver. In the top left picture, we can see from how far the car is able to detect a puddle of water in the street, which we can see on the top right image. Something that is also quite impressive is how the car mark a red X on the right image, which indicates that the car must avoid following that turning line.
How does Tesla self-driving is designed to take the right decision?
Initially, the program calculates a huge number of solutions that are relatively good for the current conditions. Instead of trying every single possibility to get to its end point, which would spend energy and time, the program depicts a convex corridor that marks the overall route in for of a continuous line. With this general path, the car will be doing a continuous optimization and planning for 10 to 15 seconds ahead along the path to archive a smooth trajectory. In order to has a successful automated drive, the car must plan for itself and for everyone else.
How can a Tesla car scan and recognize object?
The company create a data set of labeling, which generated over 10 billion labels across two and half million clips. At the beginning these labels ware integrated manually through a series of 2D images. Currently, the program uses a vector space to scan, generate a 3D or 4D environment with the know labels. These three-dimensional environments can also be used to recognize and create new layers. All camera views and sensor are used simultaneously to generate an efficient reconstruction of the surroundings. This process is used with every sing car and the data is combine in a single vector map optimization. A car that is driving and generating an update version of the place, also have information about places that it has never been before.
For labels like pedestrian, cyclists, or automobiles that are in motion, the car can make prediction of their future location by calculating distance and velocity. Since manual labeling takes to much time and resources, Tesla have created a program where they can create computer simulations of different environment. With these simulations, the AI can automatically label all object in the render. This also allows to label things in situations that otherwise would be too difficult to experience in real life. For example, it would be difficult for a car to source a person who is running in an express lane or an animal on the middle of a city street. For that reason, these types of situations are run and teach to the AI using a simulation. From that point, if it ever happens in real life, the cars will know what to make of it and what decision to take. The collected data help the program to learn at a faster pace and the learning is used for every car in real time experiences.
How are all the labels and training data generated?
In order to have an amount of data that would made self-driving efficient, tesla would have to scale a huge offline neural network to be included in each car. To process high amount of data, it is required high performance computers. When calculating surrounding, the two biggest difficulties are latency and frame rate, which are essential to assure safety. To effectively process the input information, each tesla works with two engines, or chips, called Dual-SoC. In any given time, one of the chip can output control commands to the vehicle, while the other is simultaneously working on other tasks.
Each chip counts with ISP, Input, DRAM Controller, Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), Neural Processing Unit 1 (NPU), Neural Processing Unit 2 (NPU), and Central Processing Unit (CPU). All the required components are built by Tesla, from the mechanical components of the body to the neural system that would be the electrical components.
Tesla has grown its capacity to evaluate their software neural network and by doing so, improve the learning capacity of their AI learning machine. With an immense set of computers and processors in their three datacenters, they are generating over a million evaluations per week. These evaluations are run in over three thousand driving computers as a dedicated cluster. To generate all these evaluations, the computers work with a total of ten thousand GPUs. In term of number of GPUs, it is more than the top 5 publicly known supercomputers in the world.
How are computers capable to develop such AI superfast learning software?
Computer engineers at Tesla constructed a system they call Dojo, wish is designed as a large compute plane with extremely high bandwidth and low latencies. Using this 2D fabric in an extreme scale, big neural networks would be partitioned and mapped to extract different data parallelism. A neural compiler would exploit spatial and temporal locality to reduce communication footprint to local zones and reduce global communication. With this plane of compute, the bandwidth capacity would keep scaling.
Starting with the chip, they pick the farthest distance in a box that a signal could traverse in a very high clock cycle, which was two gigahertz plus. This depicted the lowest speed that a signal could traverse one cycle at a very high frequency. They filled the box with wires to the brink to achieve the heist bandwidth that the box can be feed with. After, machine learning compute, a large pool or SRAM, and a programable core to control was added underneath. This combination created a High-Performance Trading Node with a 64-bit superscalar CPU optimized around matrix multiply units and vector SIMD. It supports configurable FP8 and it’s backed by one and a quarter megabyte of fast ECC Protected SRAM.
The architecture of the trading node is design to increase optimization and could do compute and date transfer simultaneously. It is indeed fully optimized for machine learning workflow, with features like transpose, gather, link traversal, broadcast, among others. The training nodes were designed and integrated extremely modular to be able to avert them in any direction to start forming the compute plane. Three hundred and fifty-four if these nodes conform the center of each D1 chip, which is surrounded by 576 high speed and low power services to enable extreme I/O bandwidth out of the compute. Each individual chip is like a GPU level compute with a CPU level flexibility and twice the network chip level bandwidth. A learning machine compute plane is form by one thousand and five hundred D1 chips, creating five hundred thousand nodes, with also Dojo interface processors on each end. The interface processors provide the host bridge and high bandwidth.
With lot of data processing comes lot of energy consumption. To feed power into the training machine, it was required to create a voltage regulator module that would be directed directly to a fan of water to cool down the system.
These technologies will allow Tesla to Achieve best AI training performance, enable larger and more complex neural net models, and be more power and cost efficient.[supanova_question]
You must comment on the podcast episode. What did you like? Not like? What caught your attention? What was
You must comment on the podcast episode. What did you like? Not like? What caught your attention? What was included that should not have been? What did you learn? What would you like to know more about? Provide some detail. Go beyond just the basics. Make a statement and provide support. Use specific examples. PLEASE USE SPECIFIC EXAMPLES FROM PODCAST! Will upload through wetransfer.[supanova_question]
Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY The Assignment must be submitted on
Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY
The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated folder.
Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.
Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.
Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.
Late submission will NOT be accepted.
Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions.
All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism).
Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.
Course Learning Outcomes-Covered
Course Learning Outcomes (CLOs)
The capacity to write coherent project about a case study or an actual research about ethics
General Motors’ Failure to Consider Stakeholders
General Motors (GM) has struggled with its brands and its image. Over the years, it has jettisoned some of its once-popular brands, including Oldsmobile and Pontiac, sold many others, and climbed back from a 2009 bankruptcy and reorganization. The automaker was hiding an even bigger problem, however: The ignition switch in many of its cars was prone to malfunction, causing injury and even death. The faulty switches caused 124 deaths and 273 injuries, and GM was finally brought to federal court. In 2014, the company reached a settlement for $900 million and recalled 2.6 million cars.
The case exemplifies the tension between the concept that “the only goal of business is to profit, so the only obligation that the businessperson has is to maximize profit for the owner or the stockholders” on one hand, and the ethical obligations a company owes to its other stakeholders on the other. GM’s failure to consider its stakeholders and consumers when choosing not to report the potential for malfunction of the ignition switches led to an ethical breakdown in its operations and cost the company and its customers dearly. In addition, by treating customers as only a means toward an end, the company turned its back on a generation of loyal buyers.
What virtues and values shared by its long-time customers did General Motors betray by failing to disclose an inherent danger built into its cars? (Not less than 600 words) 2.5-Marks
How do you think that betrayal affected the company’s brand and the way car buyers felt about the firm? How might it have affected its shareholders’ views of GM? (Not less than 600 words) 2.5-Marks[supanova_question]
2 2 Data Collection and Ethical Concerns Krystal Rozier Professor Rebecca Ferrer
Data Collection and Ethical Concerns
Professor Rebecca Ferrer
Unit 5 Assignment 1
Identifying a Chosen Issue and its Background
The Gateway Foundation
The Gateway Foundation is a human services organization based in Chicago, Illinois. The organization offers specialized treatment for substance misuse and mental health (Gateway Foundation, 2021a). The treatment programs offered include outpatient, residential, day treatment, and aftercare for the patients. Gateway Foundation was established in 1968 to help clients live a drug-free life and improve their well-being. Since its inception, the institution has served over one million clients and continues to be among the leading human services organization in Illinois. Besides, the organization has managed to open 16 branches in Illinois, which serve the larger population suffering from substance and alcohol addiction. The organization’s mission is “To reduce substance misuse and co-occurring mental health problems through effective and efficient treatment programs” (Gateway Foundation, 2021c). Similarly, the agency’s mission is “To be the nation’s leading treatment provider, helping to create access through affordable, high-quality healthcare for substance misuse and mental health treatment for all who need it” (Gateway Foundation, 2021c).
The program examined in this project is substance and alcohol addiction and its correlation to mental health. Gateway Foundation offers alcohol addiction treatment in its rehabilitation centers. The center offers a holistic-based treatment approach to alcohol addiction (Gateway Foundation, 2021b). Moreover, the organization provides drug abuse rehabilitation through medical and psychological support. Additionally, the agency focuses on co-occurring disorders among the clients who seek its services (Gateway Foundation, 2021b). According to medical specialists, most individuals who visit their centers for substance addiction treatment may also struggle with a mental health disorder. The organization also provides dual diagnoses to treat both addiction and mental health disorders. Therefore, the focus of the study will be on the prevalence and treatment of co-occurring disorders.
This study will attempt to examine the correlation between substance and alcohol use and mental health. The study’s focus will be how substance and alcohol use contribute to mental disorders. Similarly, the research will determine how the occurrence of mental disorders contributes to substance and alcohol use. Hence, it will be essential to note how dual diagnosis and treatment could help patients’ recovery.
What is the correlation between substance use and mental health?
What is a dual diagnosis in the treatment of substance and alcohol addiction and mental health?
What are the benefits of dual diagnosis in the treatment of substance and alcohol use?
What are some of the intervention measures for individuals suffering from substance and alcohol addiction?
What types of treatment are available for dual diagnosis treatment plans?
Goals for the Issue, Program, and Organization
This study aims to identify the prevalence of dual diagnosis among individuals suffering from substance and alcohol use. Besides, the program seeks to identify individuals suffering from substance use and mental disorders. This approach will help create appropriate treatment programs for the identified population. Additionally, the goal for the organization is to identify effective interventions for individuals under the dual diagnosis treatment program. The study also aims to improve the treatment centers for the agency by identifying treatment approaches suitable for its clients.
Background for the Study
A study by Opara et al. (2021) examined the association between substance use and mental health disorders among the youth in New Jersey. According to the author, substance use has become prevalent among the youth in the US. Besides, incidences of drug and alcohol abuse were rising among youths in their early teens. Hence, the study involved participants between 13 and 21 years in Paterson, a low-income community (Opara et al., 2021). Moreover, the scholars involved both the youth who were actively engaged in school and those who were not. According to their findings, the youth addicted to substances such as alcohol and marijuana had higher rates of anxiety and depression (Opara et al., 2021). Therefore, this study provides insights into the correlation between drug abuse and mental health. The research also provides the basis for prevention and treatment plans for persons with co-occurring disorders.
The authors stated in their research that substance use contributed to the public health crisis in the US. Additionally, the scholars cited a report from the National Institute on Drug Abuse which indicated about two-thirds of teens had experimented with alcohol by their 12th grade, and about 45% had tried marijuana (Opara et al., 2021). The study’s background also identified the youth in low-income communities as vulnerable to substance and alcohol abuse. Hence, the authors focused their study on the effects of drug addiction among the youth, including its impact on mental health (Opara et al., 2021). Although the study did not give exclusive research questions, some of the examined issues were:
What is the correlation between neighborhood characteristics and substance use?
What is the association between substance use and mental health symptoms among the youth?
The issue of co-occurring disorders relates to dual diagnosis within the Gateway Foundation. Since the organization offers substance use and mental health treatment, it will effectively assess this problem in the community. Furthermore, the agency acknowledges the dangers of treating addiction disorders only without diagnosing mental illness among patients. Therefore, it will be necessary for the institution to improve its dual diagnosis program to target more persons with substance use disorders (Han et al., 2017). This approach will ensure more individuals in the other treatment programs sign up for the dual diagnosis centers for proper interventions. Consequently, the organization will remain steady in realizing its goal of improving the well-being and independence of its clients.
Besides, the specific theoretical framework that will apply to the action research would be the ecological systems theory. According to this theory, different environmental factors and everyday encounters influence a person’s behavior. Similarly, proximal factors such as peers and family may influence an individual into getting addicted to substance use through exposure. Therefore, the ecological systems theory will explain how substance and alcohol use relate to mental illnesses. Moreover, the theory will analyze how the interrelationship occurs from a person’s environment.
Description of the Research Context for the Study
The Study Setting
The Gateway Foundation surveyed its patients to determine the number of clients served in their treatment centers. It is always mandatory for the organization to generate annual reports showing clients’ numbers and demographic distributions (Gateway Foundation, 2021c). Besides, the agency has centers across Illinois and Delaware that engage in co-occurring and dual-diagnosis services. Therefore, the chosen study was conducted in Delaware and Illinois across the various treatment centers of the organization. The agency also surveyed in 2020 to prepare a report by January 2021 (Gateway Foundation, 2021c). The data for the study was gathered across the various treatment centers in Illinois and Delaware.
Similarly, the organization gathered some of the data through the Virtual Outpatient Services program. Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020, the institution has adopted virtual services to connect more of its clients to the treatment centers. The organization launched the platform GatewayConnect to continue services despite the social distancing restrictions (Gateway Foundation, 2021c). Therefore, the care specialists collected the patients’ info through face-to-face interviews and online questionnaires.
Furthermore, the organization conducted assessments to determine the persons who required admissions into their treatment programs. This strategy ensured the organization collected the client’s information to determine those that needed admission to the co-occurring and dual-diagnosis services (Gateway Foundation, 2021e). According to the agency’s guidelines, patients who present to their centers for first-time treatment need to undergo a thorough interview process to ask questions to determine any underlying conditions. The interviewing process would take about 15 minutes for each patient. Similarly, other clients presenting to the clinic with various problems would take self-test for alcohol and drug addiction. The self-test was given as a short questionnaire that helps clients identify whether they have alcohol and drug use problems (Gateway Foundation, 2021e). A depression screening self-test was also used to identify those patients who suffered from depression and associated mental illnesses. Moreover, the organization used the GatewayConnect platform to collect more patient information in the outpatient program (Gateway Foundation, 2021c).
The participants in this study were patients who presented in the clinic with alcohol and drug use problems. The participants were selected through simple random sampling since all the patients visiting the treatment centers had to undergo the screening process (Gateway Foundation, 2021e). This approach allowed the service personnel to identify the clients with co-occurring disorders. Additionally, some participants were selected through online surveys in the GatewayConnect platform. According to the organization, “The new platform also allows Gateway to communicate with alumni, aiding our recovery specialists in identifying potential signs of relapse and provides our clinicians with a mechanism to get people back into active treatment before relapse occurs” (Gateway Foundation, 2021c). Thus, some participants were selected from the virtual outpatient program.
Data Reporting Models
The study findings were reported in tables and pie charts. The tables showed the rates of clients satisfied for both the residential and outpatient services. Likewise, the organization used doughnut charts to report the total number of clients served, clients served by gender, age, ethnicity, and setting. The doughnut charts efficiently showed the totals and the proportions of each category (Gateway Foundation, 2021c). A similar data reporting model was used by the Caron Foundation, headquartered in Pennsylvania. The agency used a table to report the number of individuals and families served through the addiction rehabilitation program. The table showed 2,712 patients were served in inpatient treatment while 1,258 were outpatients (Caron Treatment Center, 2021). The Hazelden Betty Ford Foundation in Chicago, Illinois, also used tables to report their findings on the number of patients served through their treatment centers. Their report indicated that 15,821 clients accessed services virtually, while 29,522 mental health sessions were conducted through telehealth (Hazelden Betty Ford Foundation, 2021).
According to the Gateway Foundation’s data findings, 14,868 clients visited the various treatment centers in 2020, where 14,603 were from Illinois while 265 were from Delaware. Additionally, the male clients comprised 69%, while females were 31% (Gateway Foundation, 2021c). Nevertheless, 99% of the participants were adults, while 1% were youth. Caucasians represented 72% of the clients who visited the treatment centers, while African Americans comprised 16%. Similarly, the Hispanics comprised 5%, while people from other minority races represented 7% (Gateway Foundation, 2021c). Moreover, 56% of the participants were booked for inpatient treatment, while 44% were booked for outpatient services. Out of the clients served by the organization, 93.4% showed satisfaction with the inpatient services, while 96.4 % were satisfied with the outpatient program (Gateway Foundation, 2021c).
The organization stored the study’s data in the organization’s database for future reference. Although the data contained individual patient responses, the service personnel omitted the client’s identifying information, such as the name and address. The data was also stored in the cloud for backup in case the central databases shut down. Moreover, the research assistants replaced the patients’ names with serial numbers to analyze the data without displaying the patients’ real names. This strategy ensured the privacy of the clients was guaranteed.
Ethical Implications of the Chosen Study
Relationship of the Researchers and Participants
The relationship between the researchers and the study participants was highly professional. Since the research involved service personnel and visiting clients, the researchers had to maintain high standards of professionalism while attending to the patients. This approach involved taking the patients through the necessary procedure of the assessments and admissions (Gateway Foundation, 2021e). According to the report, the researchers needed to gain informed consent from the participants. The study involved collecting the patients’ information, including identifying details such as the name, address, and contacts. Therefore, it was essential for the service personnel involved to seek permission from their clients.
Getting informed consent from the participants included explaining to them the purpose of the study by giving adequate information. For example, the service personnel would take the patients through the interview process before admission to explain the requirements and procedures involved in the organization. Moreover, the service personnel determined whether the visiting patients agreed to the study or had their information recorded during the assessments (Gateway Foundation, 2021e). The researchers also provided the participants with an agreement form where both parties signed to authorize the release of confidential information for treatment purposes. This approach signified that the researchers consented to use their confidential information only when necessary and during diagnosis and treatment.
Protection from Harm and Risks
The researchers assured the participants that they would be protected from harm by explaining the purpose of the study and seeking informed consent from them. Furthermore, the researchers protected the anonymity and confidentiality of the clients from exposing them to any risks. Such risks would include breach of privacy or ridicule and embarrassment from peers and other people. The researchers also informed the patients that it was voluntary participation; hence one was free to terminate their engagement at any time. This approach ensured the participants had the right to withdraw from the study if they felt uncomfortable or breached their private space.
Similarly, the researchers explained to the participants how their data would be stored. According to the study, the information would be stored in encrypted databases and the identifying information replaced with serial numbers. This approach would guarantee the anonymity of the visiting clients. Since the organization mainly served adults, there were no participants from the vulnerable population.
How Confidentiality was Implemented
Although the research process included replacing the participants’ identifying information with serial numbers, further actions were implemented to guarantee the confidentiality of the participants. For example, the data files were encrypted before storage in the organization’s database and the cloud. Besides, there would be restricted access to the data as only authorized personnel would be allowed to retrieve and manage the information (Gateway Foundation, 2021d). The physical assessment forms were stored in secure cabinets and would be destroyed soon after digitizing the information. This approach prevented manipulation and misinterpretation of the data by unauthorized persons.
Furthermore, the data would be stored for ten years before being destroyed. This period would allow the institution to monitor the trends in patients’ admissions and recovery. Moreover, the period would allow the agency to compare the data for the different fiscal years within the period. The vice president of information services in the organization has access to the research data. According to the agency’s leadership structure, the vice president for information services is responsible for all information technology initiatives, including data management (Gateway Foundation, 2021d). Thus, the administrative personnel would also authorize other individuals in the management team to access the data.
Results of Data Collection and Analysis
The Gateway Foundation used a quantitative research design as the preferred research method. The quantitative research design was appropriate for the study since it collected unique numerical and categorical information (Bloomfield & Fisher, 2019). According to the organization’s policies, individuals who presented to the clinic with drug and alcohol-related problems had to take self-tests to determine their admissions. Similarly, the service personnel provided self-test questionnaires to the clients to diagnose co-occurring disorders. The questionnaires had Likert-scale questions, making it a quantitative research design (Gateway Foundation, 2021e). The data analysis also involved descriptive statistics in creating charts and tables, making it a descriptive research design.
The agency used the collaborative approach for its research design. Since the organization offers various programs and services, the researchers collaborated with service personnel in different service centers to gather patient information. The research design was implemented in various steps, including describing the study’s aim and identifying the quantitative method as appropriate (Hackett et al., 2018). Additionally, the researchers recognized the sampling population as individuals who would present to the clinic with either substance use or mental disorders. A simple random sampling process was also used to select the participants who underwent screening at the facility (Hackett et al., 2018). Moreover, the organization chose questionnaires as the preferred data collection method and used descriptive statistics to analyze the information (Bloomfield & Fisher, 2019). The researchers later presented the data in tables and charts to explain their findings.
The organization used the collaborative approach for their research design since it helped gather more information from the clients. The researchers relied on service personnel from various centers and discharged patients to collect crucial data. Besides, the quantitative research design was appropriate for the study as it allowed rapid data collection from a large sample size (Stringer & Aragón, 2020). The approach saved time and resources for the entire study. Furthermore, the chosen approach allowed randomization of the participants; hence the findings could be generalized for the larger population.
Data Types and Organization
The researchers collected the participants’ demographic information such as age, gender, and ethnicity. This data would help the service personnel determine the age distribution of their clients and their geographical distribution. Additionally, the researchers collected nominal data concerning the severity of alcohol and drug addiction of the patients (Gateway Foundation, 2021e). The clients self-reported by answering either yes or no to the questions. Similarly, the service personnel collected nominal data on the severity of mental disorders to ascertain co-occurring disorders. The researchers organized the data in different file formats to distinguish the patient information into various categories. For example, each patient had different survey items to store their alcohol or drug addiction (Gateway Foundation, 2021e). Likewise, the researchers organized the information on screening items for mental disorders. The data from the GatewayConnect platform was also stored in the cloud and downloaded in spreadsheets for more accessible analysis (Gateway Foundation, 2021c). This approach helped the organization conduct independent analysis for each category of data to give meaningful results.
Data Collection Methods
The researchers used interviews and questionnaires to collect data for the study. According to the organization’s guidelines, clients who reported to the treatment centers needed to undergo a complete assessment to determine those admitted to the rehab centers. Therefore, the researchers used interviews to overview the clients’ problems to help customize an effective treatment plan. Besides, the service workers provided the patients with self-test questionnaires to assess for severity of alcohol and drug addiction (Gateway Foundation, 2021e). The questionnaires were developed using the criteria of substance use disorders (SUD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5). The items consisted of “Yes” or “No” questions, and the respondent would select an option they resonated with (Gateway Foundation, 2021e). A similar questionnaire was developed for screening mental illnesses, and the participant would answer the questions where applicable. If a participant answered “Yes” in at least three of the questions, they would get booked for further diagnosis ad treatment of co-occurring disorders.
The organization also launched the GatewayConnect platform to allow patients and alumni to get connected during the height of the pandemic (Gateway Foundation, 2021c). The new online platform allowed the patients to share info and helped collect crucial patient data such as signs of relapse. This approach guaranteed the service personnel would identify potential relapse cases and address them in real-time.
Data Analysis Tools
The researchers used Excel to analyze the data collected from the patients. Since the information was recorded in questionnaires, the data was later transferred in Excel spreadsheets for preparation and cleaning. Similarly, the data from the GatewayConnect platform was downloaded and stored in Excel spreadsheets. This method made it easier to analyze quantitative data as it would be sorted into numerical and nominal data types (Guerrero et al., 2019). Data analysis using Excel also allowed the researchers to generate appropriate charts such as doughnut charts and summary tables. Besides, the researchers could apply different formatting to the charts using Excel.
According to the study findings, some clients presented to the clinic with co-occurring disorders. However, screening for drug and alcohol addiction alone could not help identify other illnesses such as mental disorders. Therefore, the researchers included dual-diagnosis in their program to identify patients who suffered from both types of disorders (Gateway Foundation, 2021b). The findings also indicated that the majority of the clients were satisfied with the services provided by the organization. Furthermore, Gateway Foundation extended its services to correctional facilities in Delaware, Florida, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, Texas, and Wyoming (Gateway Foundation, 2021c). The clients served in these correctional facilities also expressed satisfaction in diagnosis and treatment services offered by the agency.
The data also indicated the males served by the population were more than the females. The adults comprised 99% of the population, while the youth represented only 1% of the respondents (Gateway Foundation, 2021c). Caucasians represented most of the population, while Hispanics and African Americans formed a small fraction of the respondents. The findings also showed that more patients were admitted in the in-patient facility than outpatients (Gateway Foundation, 2021c). These trends showed that the screening by the organization was effective in identifying participants who required admission for immediate treatment.
Grouping of Raw Data
Clients Total: The theme was used to classify the participants from different locations.
Clients by Gender: This theme was used to categorize the participants into either males or females.
Clients by Age: This theme was used to determine the age of the participants.
Client by Ethnicity: The theme was used to classify the participants into different races. Each participant was asked to select their race/ethnicity.
African American (Illinois)
African American (Delaware)
Clients by setting: This theme showed the distribution of clients in the various treatment centers
Bloomfield, J., & Fisher, M. J. (2019). Quantitative research design. Journal of the Australasian Rehabilitation Nurses Association, 22(2), 27-30.
Caron Treatment Center. (2021). 2019-2020 annual report. https://deln1jxmpfoj4.cloudfront.net/PDFs/PDFs-2021/2020-ANNUAL-REPORT-web.pdf
Gateway Foundation. (2021a). About Gateway drug & alcohol rehabilitation. https://www.gatewayfoundation.org/about-gateway-foundation/
Gateway Foundation. (2021b) Co-occurring and dual diagnosis services. https://www.gatewayfoundation.org/what-we-treat/co-occurring-and-dual-diagnosis-services/
Gateway Foundation. (2021c). Leading the way to recovery against all odds: 2020 annual report. https://cdn.heyzine.com/flip-book/pdf/bd50452882521a03c8956c24b18bb5e2ae73a962.pdf
Gateway Foundation. (2021d) Our team. https://www.gatewayfoundation.org/about-gateway-foundation/our-team/
Gateway Foundation. (2021e). Self-tests. https://www.gatewayfoundation.org/gateway-admissions/self-tests/
Guerrero, H., Guerrero, & Rauscher. (2019). Excel data analysis. Springer International Publishing.
Hackett, P. M., Lu, L., & Capobianco, P. M. (2018). Integrating and Writing Up Data-Driven Quantitative Research: From Design to Result Presentation. In Quantitative Research Methods in Consumer Psychology (pp. 376-406). Routledge.
Han, B., Compton, W. M., Blanco, C., & Colpe, L. J. (2017). Prevalence, treatment, and unmet treatment needs of US adults with mental health and substance use disorders. Health Affairs, 36(10), 1739-1747. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2017.0584
Hazelden Betty Ford Foundation. (2021). What hope is made of: 2020 donor impact report. https://s9cdn.joomag.com/pdf/1/1069/1069516/0035865001624473686.pdf?md5=3C2dTP2TEKs3DOz0YxiBQ&expires=1635632140&name=Donor+Impact+Report+2020+June+2021&1624515738
Opara, I., Leonard, N. R., Thorpe, D., & Kershaw, T. (2021). Understanding Neighborhoods’ Impact on Youth Substance Use and Mental Health Outcomes in Paterson, New Jersey: Protocol for a Community-Based Participatory Research Study. JMIR Research Protocols, 10(5), e29427. https://doi.org/10.2196/29427
Stringer, E. T., & Aragón, A. O. (2020). Action research. Sage publications. [supanova_question]
PSY-102 Sensation and Perception Application Scoring Guide Grading category Points Comments An
PSY-102 Sensation and Perception Application
An example from daily life is given for each concept listed.
An explanation of exactly why the example fits the concept is included for each concept.
All writing is academic in nature. Each concept is a minimum of 50 words.
In-text citations are included to support explanations.
Reference list included.
©2017. Grand Canyon University.[supanova_question]
Faculty of Business and Law School of Economics, Finance & Accounting Assignment
Faculty of Business and Law
School of Economics, Finance & Accounting
Accounting for Business
Business Case Study
Time and Place:
Online submission through Aula ONLY
This assignment is an individual assignment designed to assess the following learning outcomes:
2. Apply numeracy skills and qualitative judgment to aid financial decision making.
3. Understand, apply and evaluate management accounting concepts and techniques in decision making.
Coursework Assignment – PS Ltd
As set out on page 2 and generally, this assignment requires you to write a draft business report to address the various issues within the case study. You are the Personal Assistant to Chris Roberts. 3 months ago, Chris was appointed by ABCD Plc, the parent company of Parker Seating Ltd (PS), as General Manager to turn PS around.
In his/her late 30’s, after a business degree, Chris qualified as an accountant before joining ABCD as part of a trouble-shooting team. PS is his/her first independent command, so to speak. You are part of the turnaround team. It’s ABCD that pays both your salaries.
The last few years have been very difficult for PS, a UK-based company whose principal activity is the manufacture of furniture, which it distributes to retailers. It has only survived through the support of its parent company, ABCD plc, to whom it currently owes a significant debt.
ABCD has reached the point where it is prepared to take drastic action, including closing down PS. So PS needs rapidly to improve its financial performance, advancing on all fronts; as appropriate increasing revenue, and reducing costs and capital employed. Cash is available from ABCD if the case is strong.
Below is the brief you have received from Chris Smith:
Please draft a report to go out in my name as follows:
Highest level of confidentiality
Readership – ABCD’s PS Steering Committee plus PS’s top tier managers
2,500 words maximum. Remember that clarity (e.g. from headings and bullet points) is the cardinal virtue in this organisation. Brevity is a bonus, so less than 2,500 words is good.
But never cut corners or mislead – if something is complex or you just don’t know (or cannot say) then make that clear, why, and ideally, how and when you can get back to clarity. Repetition kills credibility because it tells the reader that you don’t know what you’ve already said. Spell-checks are there to make everyone look literate. And as my time is more valuable than yours, you must do the proofreading.
You have a few leads with which to start but I need from you elaboration, exploration and, in some cases, a recommendation. Specifically, I’m looking for the following:
As per normal for ABCD, an Executive Summary of the report to follow. Include here any comments you feel I should be to making about our prospects coming out of the Covid pandemic.
Re Cash budgeting – the finance department have passed me some alarming figures. What’s going on? We all need to know. Recommendations would be welcome including recommendations as to where we need to investigate.
See Document 2
Comments on a possible new product line. See Document 3
Comments on absorption costing and overhead recovery.
See Document 4
Comments on the Faststitch-Bondright decision and capital investment appraisal.
See Document 5.
Budgeting – where should PS be going? What Does Beyond Budgeting offer us?
See Document 6
+ + + + + + +
You have therefore carried out some background research and have obtained the following documents.
Document 1 – Past Unaudited Income Statements – Years to 30th September
The following summary annual income statements relate to Parker Seating Ltd.
Cost of Sales
Document 2 – Cash budget
Parker Seating Ltd’s Finance Department has prepared the following cash budget and budgeted income statement for the first 6 months of 2022, a period in which the company is expected to return to profit.
Net cash flow
Budgeted income statement
Cost of sales
The following information is relevant to the cash budget:
Credit customers are allowed one month’s credit on sales;
Credit suppliers allow one month credit on raw materials purchases;
Production labour is included in the cost of sales in the budgeted income statement.
The following information from the budgeted Statement of Financial Position is also available.
Document 3 – New product line
Parker are considering introducing a new line of sofa. The sofa has been developed and is ready to go into production. However, management need to decide whether to manufacture the sofa in a new factory unit near their main premises in North West England or to outsource production to a supplier company.
Information relevant to this decision is given in the following table:
Sales price (per sofa)
Direct materials cost (per sofa)
Direct labour cost (per sofa)
Buy-in cost from outsourced manufacturer
Fixed manufacturing overheads
Fixed administrative overheads
Fixed selling and distribution overheads
Break-even point (sofas)
Unit sales (sofas)required to achieve a budgeted profit of £500,000
Margin of safety at budgeted profit level
In addition, the following profit-volume chart has been produced:
Document 4 – Full (absorption) costing
Parker Seating Ltd’s product costing team have provided you with the following information on the current method used to charge overhead costs to products. The table shows each overhead cost and the apportioned and reapportioned costs by cost centre together with the apportionment bases used.
Direct materials (£)
Direct labour (£)
Indirect labour (direct labour)
Rent (floor area)
Machine insurance (machine value)
Heating (floor area)
Machine power (machine hours)
Machine depreciation (machine value)
Total apportioned overhead costs
Re-apportion maintenance (machine hours)
Re-apportion administration (employees)
Total re-apportioned overhead costs
Overhead absorption rate per machine hour (£)
The costing team have been reviewing the overhead costing methodology and have prepared the following proposal for a revised costing method.
Direct materials (£)
Direct labour (£)
Indirect labour (employees)
Machine insurance (machine hours)
Machine power (machine hours)
Machine depreciation (machine hours)
Total apportioned overhead costs
Re-apportion maintenance (machine value)
Re-apportion administration (floor area)
Total re-apportioned overhead costs
Overhead absorption rate per machine hour (£)
The Sales Director has expressed the view that this new method is superior because it reduces the overheads chargeable to the Dining and Bedroom Furniture profit centres, both of which have struggled to increase sales and make profits over the past few years. The reduction in overhead costs charged to these departments will help them to increase sales, by reducing prices, and maintain or increase profits at the same time.
Document 5 – Capital investment appraisal
The Bedroom Furniture profit centre is considering purchasing equipment to save costs and make the production process more efficient. There are two options.
The Faststitch will further automate production processes for items that needs stitching such as mattresses. The Bondright will improve production processes and product quality for items requiring adhesives, such as bed frames and chests of drawers.
The following information about the cash flows, profits and capital investment appraisal measures has been provided to you. The company’s cost of capital is currently 6%.
Cash flow (£)
Present value (£)
Cumulative cash flow (£)
3 years 9 months
Accounting rate of return
Internal rate of return 11.3%
Cash flow (£)
Present value (£)
Cumulative cash flow (£)
4 years 3 months
Accounting rate of return
Internal rate of return 9.7%
*The second cash flow in year 5 for each option represents the sales proceeds on the disposal of the equipment at the end of its life (residual value).
The Faststitch will not be fully effective until a number of new product lines requiring stitching have been introduced over the next few years, whereas the Bondright will reduce costs and improve efficiency on existing product lines.
PS’ lack of investment capital means that only one of the two pieces of equipment can be purchased in the near future, unless it goes to its parent, ABCD Plc.
+ + + + + + + + +
Document 6 – A journal article on budgeting and Beyond Budgeting (Rickards, R.C. (2006). ‘Beyond Budgeting: Boon or Boondoggle?’ Investment Management and Financial Innovations 3, (2) 62-76)
You are required to write a report for the Board of Directors of Parker Seating Ltd (italicized words in brackets indicate the approximate word count for each section).
The report should cover the following key areas:
An executive summary outlining the key challenges that the company is facing and the main outcomes from the analysis work you have undertaken. (250-300 words).
A discussion of the reasons for the differences between the net cash flows and the operating profit in the statements above (Document 4), and in particular why net cash flow remains negative when the company returns to profit at the end of the six-month period (350-400 words).
A discussion of the break-even analysis of the proposed new sofa (Document 3) with particular emphasis on the following areas:
An explanation of the different types of cost behaviour and why all fixed costs are in reality stepped fixed costs (90-110 words).
A review of the risk and return offered by the two manufacturing options and a recommendation on which option Parker Seating Ltd should choose. You may find useful the concept of operating gearing (200-240 words).
A discussion of the original and proposed costing methods above (Document 5) with particular emphasis on the following areas:
A critical appraisal of the reasons for the choice of apportionment bases used in both the original and proposed costing methods (200-250 words);
A critical appraisal of the Sales Director’s view that the proposed costing method is superior because it reduces the overheads chargeable to the Dining and Bedroom Furniture profit centres (100-150 words).
A critical appraisal of the results of the capital investment appraisal of the Faststitch and Bondright (Document 6) with particular emphasis on the following areas:
A discussion of the reasons for the apparent conflicts between the investment advice provided by each method and the say these conflicts might be resolved (300-350 words);
A discussion of the risks and returns presented by each option and a recommendation as to which option should be chosen, given the shortage of investment capital available to the company (125-175 words).
A critical discussion of the budgeting, including the Beyond Budgeting model focusing on the benefits it could bring to Parker Seating Ltd and the challenges they would face if they decided to introduce it (Document 6) (325-425 words).
GUIDELINES TO THIS ASSIGNMENT
Criteria for Assessment
This assignment will summatively assess learning outcome 3.
Analyse various techniques used in performance strategies.
Marks will be awarded according to the following criteria:
An executive summary outlining the key challenges that the company is facing and the main outcomes from your analysis work.
A discussion of the reasons for the differences between the net cash flows and the operating profit in the statements provided and any matters arising.
A discussion of break-even analysis in the context of the proposed new sofa.
A discussion of the original and proposed costing methods.
A critical appraisal of the methods and the results of the capital investment appraisal of Faststitch and Bondright
A critical discussion of the Beyond Budgeting model, its benefits and challenges.
Referencing, spelling and language used.
The word count is approximately 2,250 (see guidance below on word count for each section). There will be a penalty of a deduction of 10% of the mark (after internal moderation) for work exceeding the word limit by 10% or more. The word limit includes quotations, but excludes any lists of contents and references.
How to submit your assessment
The assessment must be submitted by 18:00:00 on 03/12/21. No paper copies are required. You can access the submission link through the module web.
Your coursework will be given a zero mark if you do not submit a copy through Turnitin. Please take care to ensure that you have fully submitted your work.
All work submitted after the submission deadline without a valid and approved reason (see below) will be given a mark of zero.
The University wants you to do your best. However, we know that sometimes events happen which mean that you can’t submit your coursework by the deadline – these events should be beyond your control. If this happens, you can apply for an extension to your deadline for up to two weeks, or if you need longer, you can apply for a deferral, which takes you to the next assessment period (for example, to the resit period following the main Assessment Boards). You must apply before the deadline. You will find information about the process and what is or is not considered to be an event beyond your control at https://share.coventry.ac.uk/students/Registry/Pages/Deferrals-and-Extension.aspx
Students MUST keep a copy and/or an electronic file of their assignment.
Checks will be made on your work using anti-plagiarism software and approved plagiarism checking websites.
As part of your study you will be involved in carrying out research and using this when writing up your coursework. It is important that you correctly acknowledge someone else’s writing, thoughts or ideas and that you do not attempt to pass this off as your own work. Doing so is known as plagiarism. It is not acceptable to copy from another source without acknowledging that it is someone else’s writing or thinking. This includes using paraphrasing as well as direct quotations. You are expected to correctly cite and reference the works of others. The Centre for Academic Writing provides documents to help you get this right. If you are unsure, please visit www.coventry.ac.uk/caw. You can also check your understanding of academic conduct by completing the Good Academic Practice quiz available on Aula.
Moodle includes a plagiarism detection system and assessors are experienced enough to recognise plagiarism when it occurs. Copying another student’s work, using previous work of your own or copying large sections from a book or the internet are examples of plagiarism and carry serious consequences. Please familiarise yourself with the CU Harvard Reference Style (on Moodle) and use it correctly to avoid a case of plagiarism or cheating being brought. Again, if you are unsure, please contact the Centre for Academic Writing, a Progress Coach or a member of the course team.
Return of Marked Work
You can expect to have marked work returned to you within 15 working days. If for any reason there is a delay you will be kept informed. Marks and feedback will be provided online. Marks will have been internally moderated only, and will therefore be provisional; your mark will be formally agreed later in the year once the external examiner has completed his/her review.
Detailed Assessment Criteria
An executive summary outlining the key challenges that the company is facing and the main outcomes from the analysis.
Effectively summarises all elements of the assignment.
Summarises the elements of the assignment but lacking somewhat in credibility or completeness.
Falling short of a good summary in terms of credibility, completeness or both.
A discussion of the reasons for the differences between the net cash flows and the operating profit in the statements provided.
Effectively covers all the elements of the task with good reference to the module textbook.
Covers most elements of the task with reasonable reference to the module textbook.
Partially covers one of the elements of the task with some reference to the module textbook.
A discussion of the break-even analysis of the proposed new sofa.
Effectively covers all the elements of the task with good reference to the module textbook and maybe other sources.
Covers most elements of the task with reasonable reference to sources.
Effectively covers 1of the elements of the task or partially covers 2 of the elements of the task with some reference to the module textbook.
A discussion of the original and proposed costing methods.
Effectively covers all elements of the task with good reference to sources, including the module textbook.
Effectively covers most of the elements of the task or partially covers both of the elements of the task with reasonable reference to the module textbook.
Somewhat covering the task or failing to be properly evidenced.
A critical appraisal of the results of the capital investment appraisal of the Superstitcher and Bondright
Effectively covers all elements of the task with good reference to sources, including the module textbook.
Effectively covers one of the elements of the task or partially covers both of the elements of the task with reasonable reference to the module textbook.
Falling short of covering all elements of the task and/or making inadequate use of sources.
A critical discussion on the context of this company of budgeting and the Beyond Budgeting model, its benefits and challenges.
Effectively covers the nature of the budgeting task, the Beyond Budgeting model, its benefits and challenges with good reference to the article provided plus at least one more article and the module textbook.
Helping readers somewhat to understand the budgeting task and the Beyond Budgeting model.
Falling short of helping readers well to understand the budgeting task and the Beyond Budgeting model.
Referencing, spelling and language used.
Referencing complies with current Coventry University standards (Harvard or APA 7). Spelling accurate. Language is appropriate and persuasive.
Two out of the three requirements above are achieved.
One out of the three requirements above are achieved.
Assignment Brief Template
Page 10 of 15[supanova_question]