Chapter 10 – Review the section on the IT leader in the

Chapter 10 – Review the section on the IT leader in the digital transformation era.  Note how IT professionals and especially leaders must transform their thinking to adapt to the constantly changing organizational climate.  What are some methods or resources leaders can utilize to enhance their change attitude?

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Is Tesla Out of Control? Tesla started in 2003 and specializes in

Is Tesla Out of Control?

Tesla started in 2003 and specializes in electric cars, battery

energy storage, and solar panels. The company had

more than 37,000 employees and revenues of over $11

billion in 2017.172 Tesla revolutionized the electric car industry

when it introduced the fully electric, plug-in Model

S sports sedan in 2013. The Model S was named “Car of

the Century” by Car and Driver magazine in 2015.173

Tesla’s Model S started at well over $70,000, with

some models costing more than $100,000.174 Tesla

added a more affordable Model 3 at around $35,000 to

its lineup in 2017.175

Tesla’s finances struggled since introducing the Model

3. The company’s net losses grew from $773 million in

2016 to $2.24 billion in 2017.176 Moody’s downgraded the

company’s credit rating based on fears that it could run

out of money by the end of 2018.177 What happened?


Manufacturing of the Model 3 has been “hell,” according

to Musk.178 The vehicle is taking too long to make,

and it has a high defect rate.

Tesla’s production line couldn’t keep up with the

demand for approximately 400,000 Model 3s between

2017 and 2018. The company has been operating out of

a former GM/Toyota joint venture plant in California

with a capacity to produce 400,000 cars annually. Tesla

could barely get a quarter of that production in 2017 as

it resorted to pulling cars off the production line and

finishing them by hand.179

Tesla’s production line is suffering from too much

automation, according to Business Insider. Most car

manufacturers automate stamping, painting, and welding,

but Musk decided to automate even more.180 He

directed that final vehicle assembly, including putting

parts inside the vehicle, be completed by robots. “It’s

remarkable how much can be done by just beating up

robots … adding additional robots at choke points and

just making lines go really, really fast,” he said in

2017.181 To his surprise, automation actually slowed

production. “Automation in final assembly doesn’t

work,” said a Wall Street analyst. For example, Japanese

carmakers actually limit automation because it is costly

and negatively impacts quality.182 Tesla experienced this

firsthand. Musk’s robots couldn’t get the final assembly

sequencing right, delaying assembly and prompting

manual refinishes.183

The robots also haven’t saved the company any

money. Tesla was able to reduce the number of workers

on its production line due to automation, but it had to

hire more expensive engineers to manage and program its robots. This does not even take into account the

expense associated with redoing assembly that robots

couldn’t get right in the first place.184

Model 3s coming off the production line were defective.

According to the LA Times, “Online Tesla forums

are rife with comments from some of those lucky

enough to have the car in hand. They’re griping about

dead batteries, leaking tail lamps, protruding headlights,

door rattles, and body panels that don’t line up—

and in many cases, they’ve got photos to back it up.”185

The delays and poor production quality are creating

a cash problem for Tesla. It can’t sell cars it hasn’t produced,

yet Bloomberg reported that the company spent

nearly half a million dollars every hour of 2017.

“Whether [Tesla] can last another 10 months or a year,

[Musk] needs money, and quickly,” said Kevin Tynan, a

senior analyst with Bloomberg Intelligence. Tynan estimated

Tesla will be required to raise at least $2 billion in

fresh capital by mid-2018.186 Musk disagreed, tweeting

“Tesla will be profitable & cash flow positive in Q3 &

Q4 [2018], so obviously no need to raise money.”187

Musk’s ambition has been praised in the past, but

Tesla’s worsening financial position is raising more and

more questions. The company has lost $4.6 billion

since going public in 2010.


Tesla’s plan is to take greater control of its manufacturing

line in order to increase production and reduce expenses.

Musk admitted in 2018 that Tesla overly relied

on robots in production telling CBS, “…excessive automation

at Tesla was a mistake. To be precise, my mistake.

Humans are underrated.”188 Musk believes more

humans need to oversee vehicle assembly, starting with

him. The CEO is spending day and night at the Tesla

factory (even sleeping in the conference room) so he

can realize errors in production and solve them in real

time.189 Tesla employees may not be too thrilled. Musk

describes himself not only as micromanager, but as a

“nano-manager” (micromeans

a thousandth of something,

while nanomeans

a billionth). “I have [obsessive-

compulsive disorder] OCD on product-related

issues,” he told The Wall Street Journal. “I always see

what’s … wrong … I never see what’s right.”190

Musk says that direct oversight has allowed him to

“unlock some of the critical things that were holding

[Tesla] back.”191 His first move was to temporarily shut

down the entire Model 3 production line in April 2018.

Tesla’s spokesperson termed the shutdown as “planned

downtime” to “improve automation and systemically

address bottlenecks in order to increase production

rates.”192 Critics believed Musk was wrong to put the line

on hold. “Periodic shutdowns of hours or a day are not

uncommon during pre-launch pilot build. They are

unheard of in regular production, where [Musk] supposedly

is,” said a former General Motors vice chairman.193

What Musk did not put on hold were his expectations

for production. Tesla committed to increasing

production from 5,000 to 6,000 cars a week by June

2018, according to USA Today.194 The investor community

is skeptical of this lofty goal, especially since Musk

has a history of failing to deliver. For example, he said

in 2017 that Tesla would churn out 5,000 Model 3s by

year’s end but only delivered 2,700.195

Musk plans to get to 6,000 cars a week by producing

them day and night. Tesla is adding another production

shift at its manufacturing plant, transitioning to 24/7

operations. The company is hiring 400 workers a week

for several weeks in order to cover this new shift.196

Some analysts don’t think this is a wise move as most

U.S. auto plants at established automakers only operate

two eight-hour shifts. This is because supplying a

plant with parts and keeping the equipment in peak

operation is difficult when running around the clock.

“There’s diminishing returns when running 24/7,” said

an executive analyst with CNNMoney. Running an additional

shift also has financial implications for Tesla.

The additional hires will surely put more pressure on

its finances.197

Musk’s response is to tighten the purse strings elsewhere.

He is planning an audit to save expenses where

possible, says The Detroit News. “I have asked the Tesla

finance team to comb through every expense worldwide,

no matter how small, and cut everything that

doesn’t have a strong value justification,” he wrote in a

2018 e-mail to Tesla employees. “All capital or other

expenditures above a million dollars, or where a set of

related expenses may accumulate to a million dollars

over the next 12 months, should be considered on hold

until explicitly approved by me,” said the CEO.198

Can Musk get Tesla under control before it runs out

of cash?[supanova_question]

Part A There is an upward linear trend in hourly nominal wages.

Part A

There is an upward linear trend in hourly nominal wages. In general, males earn more than females and the wage gap has been widening since 2013. Moreover, fluctuations in the hourly nominal wages can be perceived throughout the period, for instance, in 2011 the nominal wages for females increased while the nominal wages for males decreased, diminishing the gap to an extent.

Again, there is an upward linear trend, and the graphs follow similar paths. In general, the real wage is higher at the same point in both graphs because it is adjusted for the change in CPI. This chart is steeper because the CPI has been increasing from year to year. This graph is a better picture of standard of living because it considers the change in prices over time as well as the change in nominal wage. A higher real wage translates to workers being able to buy more goods and services.

The linear trendline shows that the hourly real wage between males and females has remained fairly constant as the real wages have increased. However, it the gap between the real wages started to increase in 2010.

There is a strong positive comovement between the male and female wages from 1997 to 2019. This may be because the wages for males and females are increasing at the same time as economic growth rises, giving way to increments in real wages.

Part B

New Zealand, United States of America, Republic of Congo, and Morocco

It can be recognized that the real per capita GDP of Morocco and the Republic of the Congo started around the same point in 1970 . In around 1978, the real GDP of Congo rapidly increased, and was even greater than Morocco, and continued to increase until 1985. The real GDP incurred rapid fluctuations throughout the time period but there is an increasing linear trend throughout. The real GDPs of the United States of America and New Zealand have remained fairly constant and much higher than Congo and Morocco. The differences in real GDPs can be attributed to the fact that Morocco and Congo are developing countries while the United States and New Zealand are developed countries.

There is a positive comovement between the business cycles of Congo, Morocco, New Zealand and the United States of America. This is because all 3 countries are trading partners. Congo exports petroleum and copper to all 3 countries and this leads to the positive comovement. From 1996 to 2000, the real GDP of Congo went through a recessive period. Morocco’s recessive period was from 2000 to 2008, the decrease in real GDP in 2008 can be attributed to the world financial crisis. New Zealand and the United States of America real GDPs have not experienced any significant dips and highs.

Yes, they are. Congo and Morocco are countries with low real GDP per capita while New Zealand and the United States of America have a high real GDP per capita. From 1970 to 2017, Congo and Morocco had a higher average annual growth rate, this indicates that convergence is taking place. New Zealand, USA and Morocco all have similar life expectancies, all between the range 78-81 years, while Congo is much lower at 61 years. (WorldBank, 2019) Congo, USA and Morocoo have similar literacy rates, all in the range 73-79 percent, while New Zealand is much higher 99%. (countryeconomy, 2016) Using the economic freedom index as a reference, which measures the economic freedom in a country, Congo ranks 165th, Morocco ranks 81st, New Zealand ranks 2nd and USA ranks 20th. Although Congo ranks behind the other 3 countries in the 3 metrics, it is still converging to the others due to increased technological progress.

Both graphs show that real GDP distribution has decreased from 1984 to 2001. The proportion of poor countries has decreased with the histogram becoming skewed to the left.

We can see that the distribution is not as skewed as the previous one. It can observed here as well that there is a decrease in the proportion of poor countries and an increase in middle-income countries. However, we still observe that the gap between poor and rich countries has increased between 1984 and 2001. The histograms are different in question 5 and question 6 because the shape of the distributions in dollars versus in logs is different as large differences in dollars translate into small differences in logs. This is why the distribution looks more equally spread on both sides of the center when real per capita GDP is expressed in logs.[supanova_question]

Problem Set 4 LNG 324, Fall 2021 1 Lambda notation Part 1.

Writing Assignment Help Problem Set 4

LNG 324, Fall 2021

1 Lambda notation

Part 1. For each of the following sets, write the corresponding characteristic function using lambda notation. Identity three elements of each set. (Note: Remember that the intersection of two sets is itself a set. The same is true of a set difference.)

{x : HAPPY(x)}

[?x ? De . HAPPY(x)]

{x : COUNTRY(x)}


{x : MOVIE(x)}?{x : ANIMATED(x)}

Part 2. Simplify the following expressions of lambda calculus by applying the functions to their arguments.

What is the type of the resulting expression?

[?x ? De . [?y ? De . [?z ? De . INTRODUCE(z,y,x)](a)]] [?x ? De . [?y ? De . INTRODUCE(a,y,x)]]

The resulting expression is of type he,he,tii.

[?x ? De . [?y ? De . LOVE(y,x)]](j)

[?x ? De . [?y ? De . LOVE(y,x)](j)]

[?p ? Dt . [?P ? D . [?x ? De . P(x) ?¬p]]](MEET(m,k))


2 [supanova_question]

PEMT 303 – Appendix A Disabilities in Kid Terms DISABILITY: _____________________________________ RESPOND

PEMT 303 – Appendix A Disabilities in Kid Terms

DISABILITY: _____________________________________


Select 2 characteristics of the disability that you have a high comfortable level to work with in teaching and briefly describe two suggested ideas that would directly impact the 2 characteristics you selected.

Select 2 characteristics of the disability that cause the greatest level of discomfort for you and briefly describe why. Briefly describe how you would “work through” your discomfort so can address that discomfort.

Briefly describe what types of training or professional development opportunities you would research and attend in order to become better educated on the selected disabilities. Think broadly and consider not only SHAPE America, but other disability related resources.[supanova_question]

I believe that my literacy path is rather different from that of

I believe that my literacy path is rather different from that of other students since I come from a country where people speak one of the most difficult languages around the world which are Arabic. My reading progress in college has been extraordinary, and I believe there is still room for improvement. I feel like I’ve been through an extraordinarily advanced proficiency journey in college to now. I eventually worked out how to improve the methods and styles of my own writing while also providing something more to general education composition and reading. As a result, I noticed that everything here is on an upper level, we will have more customizable elements of the engagement. I believe that by figuring out how to add more customization to my work, I will be able to carry these traits with me into the future by making all of my work more obvious. In addition, The progress I’ve made in my writing this semester has tremendously aided me in that aspect. My major is Statistics, which requires me to take a lot of labs and produce a lot of lab reports. My lab reports are considerably easier to comprehend and flow much more smoothly. I imagine myself in the future being a pro soccer player so I might consider myself being in a position where I’ll be meeting some popular broadcast producers and going on a conference where I declare and represent my team funs. With this, I acknowledge that I must maintain the same skill levels that I have today in order to guarantee custom to the entirety of my future work. It is effective now, and possibly for some little adjustments based on the environment, it will continue to be beneficial in the future. In conclusion, I’m not quite sure but I might have an idea. I’m planning to make a video and describe what’s like to live in Oman and then travel all around the world for studying. After that how did I transform into a bilingual and choose to learn the most popular langue in the meantime which is English. Ending that with being a popular soccer player who takes responsibility for his words and who talks English in his conferences instead of Arabic.[supanova_question]