BIO 105 Summer 2021 Assignment 3: Wakefield et al and How the

BIO 105 Summer 2021 Assignment 3: Wakefield et al and How the case was fixed

Please upload a document with your answers to these questions to the submission folder on D2L. The articles are on D2L. We will discuss the readings and your answers in class.

Due Thurs, July 29.

26 pt (2 pt for each question)


For this assignment, you’ll read a paper published in a medical journal, Lancet. One of the purposes of the assignment is to show that you don’t have to understand everything in a journal article to get something out of reading it. I don’t expect you to understand everything.

This article was the one that started the suspicion in the U.S. and Great Britain that vaccines cause autism. Because of some parents not vaccinating their kids, the incidence of measles has increased in the U.S. Measles causes a rash and fever in most cases. Other possible symptoms are diarrhea, ear infections, pneumonia, seizures, blindness, and inflammation of the brain. Dr. Wakefield, the main author of the article, moved to the U.S. and as of May 2020 was part of protests against social distancing and using vaccines to fight COVID.

The article was published in a peer-reviewed journal, which normally is a process that makes sure that only high-quality articles are published. The editors of the journal admitted that they made a mistake and published a really bad article. Science journalists also admitted that they made mistakes in publicizing the findings without talking with other researchers first.

Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children. A J Wakefield et al. Lancet 1998; 351: 637–41.

How the case against the MMR vaccine was fixed. BMJ. B Deer. BMJ Jan 2011. 342: 77-82.

Note: Wakefield et al.’s paper was retracted by the journal, Lancet. Even though the paper was peer-reviewed, reviewers and the editors didn’t catch the mistakes before it was published.

Questions on Wakefield, et al. (1998).

What did Wakefield et al. investigate?

What was the question that data shown in figure 1 answers? (The amount of methylmalonic acid excreted in urine is a measure of Vitamin B-12 deficiency.)

Notice that the two groups of children (patients vs. controls) weren’t found in the same way. a) How might the two groups of children be different from each other? b)What is the problem with interpreting results if the two groups are different?

Sample size?

Did the authors report a potential conflict of interest, such as working at or being funded by a company that manufactures a product?

Did the authors report receiving funding from grants? (Check the fine print in the article, often on the bottom of the first page of the article or just before the reference section.) If it’s not clear where the funding came from, that’s a problem.

Questions on “How the case against the MMR vaccine was fixed”:

What was the undisclosed goal of Wakefield’s study, according to Deer?

How accurate were Wakefield’s statements that all of the children were “previously normal” before MMR vaccination?

How were the children for the study actually selected (different from methods reported)?

What were the long-term consequences of publishing Wakefield et al’s paper?

Other questions:

Did Wakefield et al.’s data and interpretations merit the public concern about the MMR vaccine? Explain.

Parents are concerned because the rates of autism and other developmental disorders reported in the U.S. appear to be increasing. What is another possible explanation for the increase in rates of autism?

What could reporters have done to make sure that they covered the results of this research correctly?[supanova_question]

BIO 110-Cell Technology Name:____________________ Assignment # 3—Funding Stem Cell Research Stem-cell-based research

BIO 110-Cell Technology Name:____________________

Assignment # 3—Funding Stem Cell Research

Stem-cell-based research has shown the potential to generate effective therapies to treat diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, diabetes, and some cancers. However, stem cell research is quite controversial, as it involves many ethical issues, including when human life begins.

In 2001 the federal government announced that it would support only a limited funding of stem cell research of existing cell lines which are held by a relatively small number of laboratories. With the funding decision, stem cell research slowed dramatically in the United States as researchers experienced great difficulty obtaining the cells they need.

The federal decision does not prevent individual states from passing laws to permit and fund human embryonic stem cell research. For example, in 2004 the state of California passed a measure authorizing $3 billion supporting embryonic stem cell research.

What about your state—should your state support stem cell research?

Below are sites that review the potential of stem cell therapies and the controversy surrounding government support of stem cell research:

Compose a letter (~500 words) to your state representative, state senator, or governor, expressing your position on your state’s (potential) funding of embryonic stem cell research. You do not have to mail the letter. You must clearly communicate your understanding of:

• The biologic role of stem cells, including their unique characteristics.

• The difference between adult and embryonic stem cells.

• The potential benefits of embryonic stem cell research.

• The controversy surrounding the issue of governmental funding of embryonic stem cell research.

Guidelines for writing a letter to your state representative, senator, or governor can be found at:[supanova_question]

This assignment is designed to help you understand the differences between qualitative

This assignment is designed to help you understand the differences between qualitative and quantitative research designs, as well as select the appropriate method for the research question you have been working on throughout the course.

Create an APA formatted cover sheet.

Step 1: Use the recommended research question from Week 1 and select the type of research approach (quantitative or qualitative) that is most appropriate for it.

Step 2: Summarize the major steps in that type of research.

Step 3: Determine the specific study design (i.e., quasi-experimental, phenomenological, etc.) you would employ and explain why that is the best selection. Note your proposed sample type.

Step 4: Explain your sample type and how you would collect data for your study.

Step 5: Explain the basic statistics you would use for a quantitative approach or the basic analytics you would use for a qualitative approach to analyze your data.

Format your assignment as one of the following:

·        10 to 15-slide presentation formatted per APA

·        10 to 15-minute oral presentation

·        800-word paper per APA

·        Another format approved by your instructor

Cite at least one peer-reviewed resource in APA format.[supanova_question]

You can search on your own and select recent research related to the theory of computation from one of the

Writing Assignment Help You can search on your own and select recent research related to the theory of computation from one of the published conferences and journals such as ACM. IEEE, Citeseer, Google Scholar, the theory of computing open access journal (…. Sections needed: • Abstract • Introduction: Why the topic is interesting • Description of the idea/algorithms/methods/techniques • Comparison/Analysis and evaluations • Conclusion: Summary of Comparison and • References: at least 5 sources The papers need to be written using the APA style. [supanova_question]

Assignment #3 Schizophrenia & ASD Skim Chapt. 5 (Pg. 175) in “Adult

Assignment #3

Schizophrenia & ASD

Skim Chapt. 5 (Pg. 175) in “Adult Psychopathology and Diagnosis” in the Book List: Reflection

Write Reflection.

Pick one: Write Reflection

Can you tell which story is “fake psychology news”?

Pick any 1 story from this site: Write Reflection

Review any 1 of these professional journal articles: Write Reflection

Visit these websites: Write Reflection

Everything you ever wanted to know about neurology. Reflect on 1 but check some others for fun if you like this material.

Surf around here picks 1 to reflect on

Watch these films: Write Reflection

Compare these two films

Choose any 2. What do you think? Short reflection on each. More on the one you really related to.

Summarize this article – two more from this site related to children and schizophrenia.[supanova_question]

Assignment #3 – Math 101 ON– Summer 2021 How many months will

Assignment #3 – Math 101 ON– Summer 2021

How many months will it take for a $4800 investment to grow into $5900 when interest rate is 4% p.a.? (3 marks)

I would like to have $50,000 after retirement in 20 years 8 months from now. How much should I invest right now to reach my goal if interest rate remains the same for the next 30 years as 3% p.a.? (3 marks)

Find the equivalent payment that needs to be made in 9 months from today instead of the following three payments.

A $350 due today, a $450 due in 12 months from today and a $300 due in 18 months from today. Interest rate is 2.5% p.a. (5 marks)

Helen has two debts to pa. A $3500 today and a $4500 in 9months from today. How much should she pay if she wants to combine the two payments into one single payment to be paid in 6 months from today if money earns 4.5% p.a. compounding quarterly? (5 marks)

Helen has borrowed $4000 and agreed to pay it back in two equal payments to be made in 6 months and 12 months from today. Find the size of the payments if money earns 3% compounding quarterly. (5 marks)

Find the nominal rate of interest if $5000 grows into $6580 in 6 years when interest is compounded monthly. (3 marks)

What nominal rate of interest compounding monthly is equivalent to 3.6% p.a. compounding semi-annually? (3 marks)

How many months will it take for a $4000 to grow into $5600 if money can earn 6% p.a. compounded quarterly? (3 marks)

Extra practice material:

Calculate the rate of interest if a $3700 deposit earns $200 over 240 days.

Calculate the periodic rate of interest and total number of periods in each case:

4% p.a. compounded monthly for 39 months.

6% p.a. compounded quarterly for 36 months.

3.6% p.a. compounded semi-annually for 2 years and 3 months.

1.5% p.a. compounded daily for 2 years and 10 months and 12 days.

Find the opening balance if money has grown into $6400 after 3 years and 4 months when interest rate is 3.8% compounded quarterly.

What nominal rate of interest compounding monthly is equivalent to 3% p.a. compounding semi-annually?

Calculate the accumulated value in a savings account with the initial deposit of $5000 if it receives interest at the rate of 2%p.a. for 3 years and 3.6% p.a. compounding quarterly for another 2 years.[supanova_question]