Primary Source Visualization Project: Marketing Strategies in the Early 1900s INTRODUCTION Starting
Primary Source Visualization Project:
Marketing Strategies in the Early 1900s
Starting with the first Sears catalogue in 1895, retail businesses in the early 1900s began mailing promotional books to enhance their advertising practices and reach a broader consumer base. These order catalogues influenced both the development of corporate strategy and the range of products available to customers. On the corporate level, businesses discovered more effective methods of marketing and distribution. The developing network of the national postage system facilitated these efforts, making it possible for businesses to quickly reach a more extensive geographic range of potential consumers by setting up internal shipping departments in order to capitalize on this growth in transportation. On the customer level, more people began participating in the clothing market as buyers due to the success of mail-order advertising and distribution. During these times, Abercrombie & Fitch Co. and the National Cloak & Suit Co. were two successful New York City based clothing companies because both retailers are able to manufacture, market, and distribute very popular women’s clothing items. In particular, the two companies relied on catalogues to garner interest in their designs from consumers living outside their New York City headquarters. The story of these two firms thus serves as a powerful example of how retail businesses relied on new marketing and distribution measures to grow their empires.
As such, a 1913 catalogue from Abercrombie & Fitch Co. and a 1911 23rd anniversary catalogue from National Cloak & Suit Co. are featured in this exhibit. In its 23rd Anniversary booklet, National Cloak & Suit Co. showcases its best styles and best bargains, combining the strengths of superior designs at prices lower than those thought possible before. The booklet is created to celebrate the firm’s growth as the largest women’s clothing company in the world at the time. Because the catalogue is distributed to one out of nine homes in the United States, the National employs a mass marketing strategy in order to appeal to the typical American woman. As per the company’s designs, the booklet features garments of Paris and New York fashion, displaying an elegant style made affordable to the American woman through the record low prices featured in the catalogue. By contrast, Abercrombie & Fitch Co is a less established, more niche clothing designer focusing on the sale of sportswear for women. At the time, the company is considered “the greatest sporting goods store in the world” (Abercrombie 1), portraying the woman as a participant of free-spirited and masculine activities throughout the catalogue.
Through the juxtaposition of these two catalogues, this exhibit examines the ways in which retail businesses in the early 1900s sought to achieve scale by reaching a specific audience and maintaining a consistent brand through their marketing and distribution strategies. While both companies employed catalogues with the goal of obtaining orders from all across the country, Abercrombie & Fitch focused on a niche marketing strategy and the National utilized a mass marketing tactic. This was ultimately reflected in the consumer base of the two firms: while Abercrombie created a comprehensive range of sportswear for wealthier women, the National aimed to sell a higher volume of products by making luxury and opulence affordable at cutting edge prices for the aspirational consumer.
By comparing these two firms, one can answer questions about the degree to which marketing nationalized clothing distribution despite different trends in pricing and advertising scale. What were the costs and benefits of focusing on a niche group of consumers? What was the relationship between sales volume and product specialization? How did catalogues facilitate the nationalization of the consumer base for clothing companies? How did these pricing and product specialization efforts shape the clothing designs that were available to end customers? Further, a comparison of these two catalogues can help answer a series of questions about the role that advertising and distribution strategies played in helping retail businesses expand. How did mail order catalogues increase the potential consumer base for retail businesses? What branding tactics did retail businesses have to employ in order to make their clothing appealing to a distant consumer? How did retail businesses achieve scale? Because of its broad explanatory power, this exhibit is a compelling testament to the historical development of mass and niche marketing vehicles on a national level, and how catalogues fostered the growth of major American retail businesses.
EXHIBIT 1: CATALOGUE COVERS
As shown in the different cover pages of the catalogue, the two clothing companies portray very different images of the 20th century woman. The woman on the cover of Abercrombie’s 1913 catalogue wears a simple blue and white coat with a collar. In contrast, the woman on the cover of the National has pink roses tied around her waist, white gloves, a delicate floral white chiffon dress, and golden jewelry. While one woman is wearing a blue and white bonnet with a very feminine bow, the other is wearing a modest white sailor hat.
More broadly, the difference in the clothing the women accentuates the contrasting brands and customers of the two companies. Abercrombie appeals to their niche market by maintaining a free-spirited image and sporty image, perpetuated by the sailing background in the distance. The National maintains a proper and conventional brand, portraying a more elegant woman with makeup, accessories, and carefully styled hair. This helps the National appeal to a larger base of women, while Abercrombie focuses on selling clothes to a particular person who spends time participating in elitist sports like sailing.
EXHIBIT 2: DISCOUNT CERTIFICATES
As the largest women’s clothing company at the time, the National utilizes its catalogue to spread awareness about its record low prices, appeal to a broader income base, and consequently market to a larger mass of potential customers. Under the National’s sale model, customers get a discount just by owning a catalogue, and have the option or requesting another style book with more designs from the company without extra charge.
On the next page of the catalogue, the national provides three friend certificates for 50 cents off per $5 spent. As an incentive to distribute the three friend certificates, customers are given a merchandise certificate only if they provide written proof that the three friend certificates were sent to different people before the expiration date. In the broader picture, this strategy is important for a retail business seeking to expand through word of mouth. As the National prices its designs lower, it relies on marketing to spread awareness of these new prices, sell higher volumes of clothing, and ultimately achieve scale.
EXHIBIT 3: ABERCROMBIE BRAND
In contrast to the National, Abercrombie prides itself in its adventurous brand, selling clothes specifically for women who play outdoor sports. Abercrombie makes specialized designs for each kind of sport, and consequently appeals to more wealthy women who have the luxury of affording a different outfit for every sport. For example, the image on the left indicates that Abercrombie’s designs cater to women who participate in camping, bathing, golfing, canoeing, tramping, tennis, archery, hunting, and riding.
As a table of contents to the catalogue (shown on the right hand image), Abercrombie lists out its entire collection in the catalogue by alphabetical order. The table includes range of sports covered by Abercrombie’s designers, and the names of specific pieces of clothing for those sports. Unlike the National, Abercrombie’s core competency is its ability to provide a comprehensive range of products while staying within the niche sporting goods market.
EXHIBIT 4: NATIONAL CLOTHING
The National builds its brand by offering premium quality dresses at cutting edge prices. This strategy is best depicted in the image on the left, where the 10th anniversary dress is offered at 20% off for the first time ever. The dress is reminiscent of French elegance, with Marquisette Voile material, plaits over the shoulders, a new Parisian sailor collar, ¾ length sleeve cuffs, and dainty linen lace forms. Further, the dress is complemented with a high-end rosette ribbon lingerie hat. The model showcases the dress indoors with flowers on a table next to her, reading a book and looking out the window.
This image of a woman as stylish and serviceable is consistent throughout the catalogue. In image to the right, the National showcases its intricate floral designs for summer. The women are wearing hats embellished with beads and straws, their skirts are trimmed with embroidery and fringe, and their shoes are pointed and refined. The sailor collar is a Parisian fashion item featured in many of the Nationals’ designs, and is featured in white, rose pink, light blue, and lavender. For the first time ever, these designs are being made available to women of a wider range of income brackets, allowing the National to increase sales by democratizing luxury.
EXHIBIT 5: ABERCROMBIE CLOTHING
In its catalogue, Abercrombie & Fitch Co sells higher priced clothing for a more niche consumer: the wealthy sportswoman who has the luxury of purchasing a different outfit for each outdoor activity she participates in. The models pose in the outdoors holding a sporting tool to emphasize the specialized activities that the clothing was designed for.
Compared to the $7.98 elegant dress offered by the National, Abercrombie sells their sportswear outfits for almost double the price, with athletic coats ranging from $10-23, and matching skirts for about $5. The consumer pays a premium for Abercrombie’s more modern and defined style, with striped clothing, buttons running down the skirts, male pockets, tennis, and simple white, tan, or gray colors. More broadly, Abercrombie’s ability to charge higher prices for simple, more niche clothing offers an alternative way to successfully advertise by exclusively and effectively catering to the unmet needs of a much smaller market.
EXHIBIT 6: MAIL ORDER FORMS
Both catalogues are intended to circulate widely so that the two companies can gain mail orders from customers living outside their New York City headquarters. The companies set up internal shipping management departments in order to more efficiently process transportation and order forms such as the ones displayed in this exhibit.
In their shipping policies, Abercrombie and the National reinforce their respective high end niche and mass marketing strategies. On its mail order form, Abercrombie gives customers the option of paying by cash or check, illustrating the wealthier classification of the women who buy the products. It also offers regular railroad and express shipping speeds for those willing to pay a higher price for faster service. By contrast, the National tries to appeal to people of broader income groups by prepaying postage and duplicating lost orders at no extra charge.
Abercrombie & Fitch. 1913 styles. New York: Abercrombie & Fitch Co., 1913.
National Cloak & Suit Co. Twenty third anniversary sale. New York : National Cloak & Suit Co., c1911.[supanova_question]
Comm 2311 Oral Communication Assignment 3 Tribute Speech Video Presentation Outline Presenter
Comm 2311 Oral Communication
Tribute Speech Video Presentation Outline
Presenter and Student No.:
Date of submission:
Specific Purpose :
Central Idea :
Attention Getter :
Credibility: How you know of and what they mean to you, or how have their accomplishments , contributions impacted human lives and the world?
Reason to Listen: Does your honoree affect your audience, why should they listen?
Preview: (mention the three main points/ideas about your honoree)
I. 1st main idea ( Life and Unique Qualities of the honoree/subject)
II. 2nd main idea (Professional Achievements of the honoree/subject)
III. 3rd main idea: (Contributions of the honoree/subject to the world/humanity)
Summarize main ideas and importance of this person:
Main idea examples: show honoree’s influence on self, society, and globally, and the , accomplishments, achievements, challenges and struggles, early life, education, and qualities (emphasize on why audience should honor the subject)
List of References[supanova_question]
November 14th, 2021 Research Topic: Side Effects of Vaccines I. INTRODUCTION Background-
Writing Assignment Help November 14th, 2021
Research Topic: Side Effects of Vaccines
Background- Millions of lives are saved from infectious diseases annually through vaccination. However, many people around the world are still reluctant to get vaccinated due to fear and panic resulting from the widespread information on the side effects of some vaccines. . (Alghamdi A., et al, 2021) An example for this case is the COVID-19 vaccine.
Purpose/Audience-My research paper is intended to explore on the various side effects of vaccines in the human body, offer solutions and increase knowledge on the same. The major audience for this research are the parents and those who administer vaccines. However the study is not limited to the general public and any interested parties.
Sources- Primary sources of data will be case studies and personal interviews of mothers of young babies. The research also intends to explore published magazines and journals as well as reports from organizations such as WHO and Gavi
WHO- World Health Organization
CDC- Centers For Disease Control And Prevention (America Academy of Pediatrics,2014)
ASD- Autism Spectrum Disorder (Taylor L., et al, 2014)
Vaccine-a substance used to invigorate the production of antibodies and provide immunity against a given type of disease.
Limitations- This paper does not explore the relationship between vaccines and other diseases other than ASD
Scope- I will discuss and suggest some possible solutions to vaccines side effects such as loss of appetite, fatigue, fever, swelling of injection site, illness and death.
II. COLLECTED DATA
Vaccination can trigger a wide range of symptoms including fever.
After the first and second doses of BNT162b2 vaccines, individuals experienced more shivers, fever, myalgia, arthralgia and irritability. (Morales-Nunez,J.,et al,2021)
When the body is building more protection, there is severe discomfort caused by fever and pain.
To reduce discomfort from fever, people should drink plenty of fluids and dress lightly.
B. Swelling and paining of the injection site.
As a mild effect, the point at which one receives an injection becomes red, it swells and at the same time leads to severe pain. Consequently, this may effect one’s ability to perform their day today activities
1. The blood clots associated with some vaccines can be very dangerous and life-threatening. Upon receiving a shot, white blood cells arrive at the injection site and produce cytokines resulting into swelling.
2. To reduce pain and discomfort at the injection site, apply a clean and wet washcloth over the area. You can also exercise your arm.
C. Illness and death
Vaccination at times lead to illness. It comes along with headache, nausea, joint and muscle pains.
A woman died after receiving Johnson and Johnson vaccine. She was the fourth person to die of COVID-19 vaccine as per the CDC information. (Robert Lea, 2021).
Study however shows that there are no links between autism and vaccines (American Academy for Pediatrics, 2021).
In cases of severe and unending pain, it is advisable to contact a doctor
D. Fatigue and difficulty in breathing
1. Once vaccine has been administered into the human body, one ought to experience great tiredness as a result of body overreactions.
2. After injection, about two to five percent per million experience severe allergic reaction causing dramatic drop in blood pressure and difficulty in breathing (Linda Marsa, 2021)
Summary-Parents together with the authorities concerned with vaccine administration should consider the side effects of vaccines before they are taken. Some of the side effects they can consider include probability of illness, pain, fatigue and fever.
Interpretation of findings-With more and improved research, safer vaccines are being developed. There is more urgency and effort needed in responding to the effects of vaccines more so to the children.
Recommendations-Recommendations are therefore made that researchers should strive to come up with vaccines that have less side effects and no threat to human life. There is dire need for government intervention and funding of such researches. [supanova_question]
Position Paper #2 Human Service Workers are often faced with the task
Position Paper #2
Human Service Workers are often faced with the task of ethical decision-making. When making these decisions, they must be able to adequately support the decision that has been made. As we discussed in class this may require them to refer to their code of ethics, their agency’s policies and procedure manual, and the law. For this assignment, you will be given a case study, and you will need to respond to the questions that follow the case. When responding to the questions, you will need to refer to the text, the code of ethics, and at least one scholarly journal article beyond our course materials to help you make your decision and demonstrate support for your position. Your paper should be a minimum of 3 pages with a maximum of 5 pages, including the title page and the reference page. You are also required to follow APA format for this assignment, double space, and utilize Times New Roman 12 point font. Paper must contain an introduction and conclusion.
Ebony Smith is a Psychologist with the Peace and Love University Counseling Center. She also teaches an Introduction to Psychology class at Peace and Love University.
Dr. Smith has been treating 19 year-old Shay Jones for the past year. Shay began seeing Dr. Smith after her parents were both killed in a car crash last year. Shay has worked through many layers of grief and loss, but continues to battle with depression. Feelings of abandonment and loneliness are the biggest triggers of depression for Shay and have, at times, caused suicidal ideation in her. She has recently begun to articulate these feelings of abandonment to Dr. Smith, but they are a constant struggle for her. On several occasions, Shay has mentioned to Dr. Smith that she would not have been able to get through this horrific ordeal without her help. She stated that she has begun to think about Dr. Smith as a surrogate mother of sorts, knowing that she is the one person who is a stable source of support for her as she struggles in school, sorts out relationships with friends and boyfriends, and forges ahead with no parents and no other family members.
At the beginning of the semester, Dr. Smith noticed that Shay has enrolled in her Introduction to Psychology class. Dr. Smith initially decided that she should drop Shay from the class, fearing that she would not be able to differentiate between her role as Shay’s Psychologist and her role as Shay’s Professor. Dr. Smith decided that Shay has already experienced too much loss and she began to worry about how dropping Shay from her class would affect Shay’s emotional stability – and affect all of the hard work they have already done together. Dr. Smith decided to keep Shay in her class, but brought up the issues of confidentiality and dual relationships with Shay in a session just before classes began. Shay reported that she understood the difference between Dr. Smith’s roles and she stated that she would not discuss class in her treatment sessions and vice versa.
One month passed.
In treatment, Shay had done exceptionally well. It was nearing the time in treatment when Dr. Smith and Shay would revisit their treatment plan and decide how, if at all, to proceed. Shay had already accomplished 5 out of 6 of her treatment goals; Dr. Smith and Shay had bumped the number of sessions back from weekly to monthly; and Shay started to speak with her distant Aunt on a more regular basis, allowing her to form a connection with the only family she had left.
In class, Shay sat in the back row, never participated, and occasionally fell asleep. When it came time to grade the first set of papers, Dr. Smith found herself trying to add more points to various parts of Shay’s paper – even when Shay did not deserve them. Dr. Smith knew Shay’s history and her struggles in life and she wanted to make at least one part of Shay’s life easier. Dr. Smith grappled with whether or not to discuss these feelings with Shay in her treatment session. She did not know if honesty with Shay would impact her role as a student or her progress in treatment, and Dr. Smith began to believe that honesty would actually create even more issues within their relationship. Dr. Smith began to question her decision to keep Shay in her class…..the drop/add period was quickly coming to an end….but Shay’s treatment was likely coming to an end, as well…what should she do?
How ethical do you consider Dr. Smith’s behavior based upon principles established in the Code of Ethics and ranked in the Ethical Principles Screen? Do you believe that Dr. Smith should continue to see Shay as a client or keep Say in her class or both or neither? Why or why not?
How could another provider oppose your view using the Ethical Principles Screen and Code of Ethics?
Can Dr. Smith remain objective in her work with Shay when she also sees her in class? Why or why not? How might this dual relationship impact her counseling work with Shay? How might it impact her ability to objectively teach Shay in this class?
Remember to provide support for your responses.[supanova_question]
BC Chemistry 162 Laboratory Manual Name____________________________________________ Section_______ Experiment 6: Vapor Pressure of
BC Chemistry 162 Laboratory Manual Name____________________________________________ Section_______
Experiment 6: Vapor Pressure of Liquids
BCC Chemistry 162 Laboratory Manual Name__________________________ Section______
BC Chemistry 162 Laboratory Manual Name___________________________
Experiment 6: Vapor Pressure of Liquids
BC Chemistry 162 Laboratory Manual Name____________________________________________ Section_______
Experiment 6: Vapor Pressure of Liquids
Experiment 4: Vapor Pressure of Liquids
Like solids, liquids are referred to as a condensed state of matter because the molecules are in contact with each other. Unlike solids, liquid substances have molecules that are able to move around each other. As heat is added to a liquid, the kinetic energy of the particles, and thus the temperature of the substance, increases. When liquid particles gain enough kinetic energy to overcome the attractive forces between them they escape into the gas phase generating a gas vapor. This lab activity will demonstrate how intermolecular forces affect the pressure generated by a gas vapor. To explain your observations on a molecular level it will be important for you to describe:
Why do certain molecules have weaker intermolecular forces than other?
What is happening to the molecules in a substance when heat is added?
Why is a gas vapor generated at temperatures below the boiling point of the substance?
What is the kinetic energy distribution of different molecules in a liquid substance?
How does the rate of vaporization compare to the rate of condensation in an open container? In a closed container?
The total pressure in the sealed flask is due to the vaporized liquid plus air molecules present in the flask:
Ptotal = Pvapor + Pair (1)
In this experiment, you will investigate the relationship between the vapor pressure of a liquid and its temperature. Pressure and temperature data will be collected using a gas pressure sensor and a temperature probe (Figure 1). Vapor pressures will be determined by subtracting atmospheric pressure from the total pressure.
Figure 1The flask will be placed in water baths of different temperatures to determine the effect of temperature on vapor pressure. You will measure the vapor pressure of methanol and ethanol and determine the enthalpy (heat) of vaporization for each liquid.
In this experiment, you will
Investigate the relationship between the vapor pressure of a liquid and its temperature.
Compare the vapor pressure of two different liquids at the same temperature.
Use pressure-temperature data and the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to determine the heat of vaporization for each liquid.
The alcohols used in this experiment are flammable and poisonous. Avoid inhaling their vapors. Avoid contacting them with your skin or clothing. Be sure there are no open flames in the lab during this
1. Wear goggles! You will work in pairs for this lab, but you may share water baths with your table.
2. Prepare four water baths: 20 to 25°C (use room temperature water), 30 to 35°C, 40 to 45°C, and 50 to 55°C. You should also have some hot water on a hot plate on reserve.
Figure 2 3. Obtain a temperature probe and gas pressure sensor. The sensor comes with a rubber-stopper assembly (Figure 2). The stopper has three holes, one of which is closed. Make sure your tubing and valve are not inserted in the closed hole.
Insert the rubber-stopper assembly into a 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask. Important: Twist the stopper into the neck of the flask to ensure a tight fit.
4. Plug the temperature probe and pressure sensor into the interface box. Prepare the computer for data collection by opening the file “10 Vapor Pressure” from the Chemistry with Vernier folder of Logger Pro. The temperature and pressure readings should now be displayed.
5. Turn the two-way valve above the rubber stopper to the open position (see Figure 3). Record the value for the atmospheric pressure (round to the nearest 0.1 kPa) and the temperature in the table in the DATA section. (All subsequent trials should be performed at temperatures higher than this temperature. Adjust the temperatures of the water baths as necessary.)
6. Perform the following to finish setting up the apparatus as shown in Figure 1:
Place the Temperature Probe in the room-temperature (20–25°C) water bath.
Hold the flask in the water bath, with the entire flask covered as shown in Figure 1.
After 30 seconds, close the two-way valve above the rubber stopper as shown in Figure 3—do this by turning the white valve handle so it is perpendicular with the valve stem itself.
7. Obtain about 10 mL of the liquid (methanol or ethanol) in a small beaker. Draw about 2-3 mL of the liquid up into the syringe (note the exact position of the syringe plunger). With the two-way valve still closed, screw the syringe onto the two-way valve, as shown in Figure 1.
8. Perform the following steps to introduce the liquid into the Erlenmeyer flask:
Open the 2-way valve above the rubber stopper—do this by turning the white valve handle so it is aligned with the valve stem (see Figure 3).
Squirt the liquid into the flask by pushing in the plunger of the syringe.
(Important step!!) Quickly return the plunger of the syringe back to where it was before your injection (essentially, you have replaced a volume of air with liquid), then close the 2-way valve by turning the white valve handle so it is perpendicular with the valve stem.
Remove the syringe from the 2-way valve.
9. Click to monitor and collect pressure and temperature data. When the pressure and temperature readings displayed in the meter stabilize, equilibrium between the liquid and vapor has been established. Click . The first pressure-temperature data pair is now stored.
10. Do NOT remove the rubber stopper from the flask. Collect another data pair using the 30–35°C water bath by doing the following:
Place the Erlenmeyer flask assembly and the temperature probe into the 30–35°C water bath. Make sure the entire flask is covered.
When the pressure and temperature readings displayed on the computer monitor stabilize, click . The second data pair has now been stored.
11. Continue the rest of the trials with the other water baths. Caution: At higher temperatures, the stopper may pop out.
12. Click to end data collection. Record the pressure and temperature values in the table in the DATA section. (There is no need to print at this time. You will need to perform calculations on your data before you create a graph.) Compare your data with other teams. Do they agree?
13. Gently loosen and remove the Gas Pressure Sensor so the Erlenmeyer flask is open to the atmosphere. If you have methanol or ethanol, dispose of it in a waste container (organic waste).
14. Repeat the process with the other liquid. Use a clean, dry 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask for each liquid. Before filling the syringe with a new liquid, draw air in and out of the syringe enough times that you are certain that all of the previously used liquid has evaporated from it.
Procedural questions: Use the youtube video from MN chemistry titled “Measuring the Vapor Pressure of Acetone” to answer the following questions
Which 2 probes are connected to the labquest?
Prior to beginning the experiment, the analyst adds 450 mL of water to a 600 mL beaker. What would happen to their data if 100 mL of water were added to the beaker instead?
Notice how the pressure sensor is connected to the Erlenmeyer flask using a 2-holed stopper with a gas-release valve. What position is the valve in (open or closed) at the beginning of the experiment (right before collecting data).
Notice that this experiment involves collecting many temperature and pressure points. Which temperature and pressure point does the analyst collect first?
Notice that after injecting the acetone, they “pull the syringe back quickly to where the measurement reads 5 mL.” What is the purpose of this step?
At what point is the luer lock valve closed?
Which procedural steps are most likely to cause error? Will this be in the form of systematic error or mistakes? Will each error lead to artificially increased values, decreased values or both? Explain.
Data and Results
For this online lab you will be given sample data. On Canvas you have been assigned a group number 1-12. Use your group number to locate your sample data set in the spreadsheet associated with this lab. Paste your results into the space below.
RESULT and CALCULATIONS
Convert Celsius temperatures to Kelvin. Notice in the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, you will work with proportionalities involving temperatures. In this case only the Kelvin temperatures are valid. Insert Kelvin temperatures into Table 1 and 2 below.
Subtract pressure of atmospheric gases from total pressure. The measured total pressure for each trial is the sum of the vapor pressure of the liquid and the pressure due to any air trapped in the flask (see equation 1 in the introduction). To determine the vapor pressure of your sample you will need to subtract the atmospheric air pressure from your readings. Note that the pressure of atmospheric air depends on temperature. Calculate corrected air pressures for any of the trials that were not performed at the same temperature as the atmospheric pressure data. Hint: The air that was originally trapped in the flask was at atmospheric pressure and temperature. The corrected air pressure needs to be adjusted for temperature by: P1/T1 = P2/T2. Insert pressures of atmospheric gases into Tables 1 and 2 below.
Calculate the vapor pressure of each liquid. Using your measured total pressures and your air pressures corrected for higher temperatures, calculate the vapor pressure of each liquid in each of the four trials. (Refer to equation 1 in the introduction section.) Insert calculated vapor pressures of atmospheric gases into Tables 1 and 2 below.
Prepare and insert a plot/graph. The linear relationship between the natural log of vapor pressure vs the inverse of the absolute temperature is described by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation:
Where P is vapor pressure, Hvap is the heat of vaporization, T is the absolute temperature, and C is a positive constant. Prepare a linear graph using the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship .
Paste your graph below:
Overlay the data for both liquids on the same plot. Be sure to plot the vapor pressure, not the measured total pressure.
Make sure your plot accurately assigns the independent (x) and dependent variable (y).
Results Table 1- Methanol
Results Table 2 – Ethanol
Calculate the experimental value for enthalpy of vaporization
Calculate the experimental value of the enthalpy of vaporization for each of the liquids. Show a sample calculation for one of the liquids in the space below. Record all of the values in the table below.
Look up the literature value of the enthalpy of vaporization for each liquid on the National Institute of Standards (NIST) website http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/name-ser.html or in the CRC Handbook (one of the big reference books kept in the lab). Record all of the values in the table below.
Calculate a % error based on the literature value and your experimentally determined value for the enthalpy of vaporization for each of the liquids. Show a sample calculation for one of the liquids in your lab notebook. Record all of the values in the table below.
Results Table 4 – Experimental and Literature Values of Enthalpies of Vaporization
Average experimental ?Hvap
(Include standard deviation)
Discuss your ln P vs 1/T graph. Is the plot linear? Explain this graph in terms of the kinetic energy of the particles.
Which substance has a higher vapor pressure and is this what you expect based on intermolecular forces?
Discuss your ?Hvap data. How do your experimental values compare to the referenced (NIST) values?
Discuss any deviations of your vapor pressure vs. temperature graph or your ?Hvap data from the expected data and identify which procedural steps may have caused the errors you observe.
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