ALCOHOL ARTICLE THE ARTICLE ~ Students~ Read the article below completely before

ALCOHOL ARTICLE

THE ARTICLE

~ Students~

Read the article below completely

before you write your paper.

You may refer back to this article as you write your paper if you so desire .

Alcohol

Alcohol is the common name for ethyl alcohol, the intoxicating element in fermented and distilled liquors. Contrary to popular belief, alcohol is not a stimulant. The noisy animation at drinking parties is due to alcohol’s effect as a depressant. Small amounts of alcohol reduce inhibitions and produce feelings of relaxation and euphoria. Larger amounts cause greater impairment of the brain until the drinker loses consciousness. Alcohol is also not an aphrodisiac. Rather than enhancing sexual arousal, it usually impairs performance, especially in males. As William Shakespeare observed long ago, drink “provokes the desire, but it takes away the performance.”

Some people become relaxed and friendly when they are drunk. Others become aggressive and want to argue or fight. How can the same drug have such different effects? Some people drink for pleasure while others drink to cope with negative emotions, such as anxiety and depression. That’s why alcohol abuse increases with the level of stress in people’s lives. People who drink to relieve bad feelings are at great risk of becoming alcoholics ( Kenneth, Carpenter, & Hasin, 1998).

Also, when a person is drunk, thinking and perception become dulled or shortsighted, a condition that has been called alcohol myopia (my-OH-pea-ah) ( Giancola et al., 2010). Only the most obvious and immediate stimuli catch a drinker’s attention. Worries and “second thoughts” that would normally restrain behavior are banished from the drinker’s mind. That’s why many behaviors become more extreme when a person is drunk. On college campuses, drunken students tend to have accidents, get into fights, sexually assault others, or engage in risky sex. They also destroy property and disrupt the lives of students who are trying to sleep or study ( Brower, 2002).

Abuse

Alcohol, the world’s favorite depressant, breeds our biggest drug problem. More than 20 million people in the United States and Canada have serious drinking problems. One American dies every 20 minutes in an alcohol-related car crash. Significant percentages of Americans of all ages abuse alcohol (Figure 1).

Figure 1

Results from the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k11Results/NSDUHresults2011.htm

( Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011)

and

© Cengage Learning

Many Americans of all ages abuse alcohol. According to this 2010 survey, about 40 percent of young adults aged 18–29 admitted to heavy alcohol use or binge drinking in the month before the survey was administered

It is especially worrisome to see binge drinking among adolescents and young adults. Binge drinking is defined as downing five or more drinks (four drinks for women) in a short time. Apparently, many students think it’s entertaining to get completely wasted and throw up on their friends. However, binge drinking is a serious sign of alcohol abuse ( Beseler, Taylor, & Leeman, 2010). It is responsible for 1,800 college student deaths each year and thousands of trips to the emergency room ( Mitka, 2009).

Binge drinking is of special concern because the brain continues to develop into the early twenties. Research has shown that teenagers and young adults who drink too much may lose as much as 10 percent of their brain power—especially their memory capacity ( Brown et al., 2000). Such losses can have a long-term impact on a person’s chances for success in life. In short, getting drunk is a slow but sure way to get stupid ( Wechsler & Wuethrich, 2002).

At Risk

Binge drinking and alcohol abuse have become serious problems among college students ( Tewksbury, Higgins, & Mustaine,2008).

Children of alcoholics and those who have other relatives who abuse alcohol are at greater risk for becoming alcohol abusers themselves. The increased risk appears to be partly genetic. It is based on the fact that some people have stronger cravings for alcohol after they drink ( Hutchison et al., 2002). Women also face some special risks. For one thing, alcohol is absorbed faster and metabolized more slowly by women’s bodies. As a result, women get intoxicated from less alcohol than men do. Women who drink are also more prone to liver disease, osteoporosis, and depression. Each extra drink per day adds 7 percent to a woman’s risk of breast cancer ( Aronson, 2003).

Recognizing Problem Drinking

What are the signs of alcohol abuse? Because alcohol abuse is such a common problem, it is important to recognize the danger signals. If you can answer yes to even one of the following questions, you may have a problem with drinking (adapted from the College Alcohol Problems Scale, revised; Maddock et al., 2001):

As a result of drinking alcoholic beverages I… .

engaged in unplanned sexual activity.

drove under the influence.

did not use protection when engaging in sex.

engaged in illegal activities associated with drug use.

felt sad, blue, or depressed.

was nervous or irritable.

felt bad about myself.

had problems with appetite or sleeping.

Moderated Drinking

Almost everyone has been to a party spoiled by someone who drank too much too fast. Those who avoid overdrinking have a better time, and so do their friends. But how do you avoid drinking too much? After all, as one wit once observed, “The conscience dissolves in alcohol.” It takes skill to regulate drinking in social situations, where the temptation to drink can be strong. If you choose to drink, here are some guidelines that may be helpful (adapted from Miller & Munoz, 2005; National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2008):

Paced Drinking

Think about your drinking beforehand, plan how you will manage it, and keep track of how much you drink.

Drink slowly (no more than one drink an hour), eat while drinking or drink on a full stomach, and make every other drink (or more) a nonalcoholic beverage.

Limit drinking primarily to the first hour of a social event or party.

Practice how you will politely but firmly refuse drinks.

Learn how to relax, meet people, and socialize without relying on alcohol.

And remember, research has shown that you are likely to overestimate how much your fellow students are drinking ( Maddock & Glanz, 2005). So don’t let yourself be lured into overdrinking just because you have the (probably false) impression that other students are drinking more than you. Limiting your own drinking may help others as well. When people are tempted to drink too much, their main reason for stopping is that “other people were quitting and deciding they’d had enough” ( Johnson, 2002).

Treatment

Treatment for alcohol dependence begins with sobering up the person and cutting off the supply. This phase is referred to as detoxification (literally, “to remove poison”). It frequently produces all the symptoms of drug withdrawal and can be extremely unpleasant. The next step is to try to restore the person’s health. Heavy abuse of alcohol usually causes severe damage to body organs and the nervous system. After alcoholics have “dried out” and some degree of health has been restored, they may be treated with tranquilizers, antidepressants, or psychotherapy. Unfortunately, the success of these procedures has been limited.

One mutual-help approach that has been fairly successful is Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). AA takes a spiritual approach while acting on the premise that it takes a former alcoholic to understand and help a current alcoholic. Participants at AA meetings admit that they have a problem, share feelings, and resolve to stay “dry” one day at a time. Other group members provide support for those struggling to end dependency ( Vaillant, 2005). (Other “12-step” programs, such as Cocaine Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous, use the same approach.)

Other groups offer a rational, nonspiritual approach to alcohol abuse that better fits the needs of some people. Examples include Rational Recovery and Secular Organizations for Sobriety (SOS). Other alternatives to AA include medical treatment, group therapy, mindfulness meditation, and individual psychotherapy ( Buddie, 2004; Jacobs-Stewart, 2010). There is a strong tendency for abusive drinkers to deny they have a problem. The sooner they seek help, the better.[supanova_question]

ALCOHOL ARTICLE THE ARTICLE ~ Students~ Read the article below completely before

ALCOHOL ARTICLE

THE ARTICLE

~ Students~

Read the article below completely

before you write your paper.

You may refer back to this article as you write your paper if you so desire .

Alcohol

Alcohol is the common name for ethyl alcohol, the intoxicating element in fermented and distilled liquors. Contrary to popular belief, alcohol is not a stimulant. The noisy animation at drinking parties is due to alcohol’s effect as a depressant. Small amounts of alcohol reduce inhibitions and produce feelings of relaxation and euphoria. Larger amounts cause greater impairment of the brain until the drinker loses consciousness. Alcohol is also not an aphrodisiac. Rather than enhancing sexual arousal, it usually impairs performance, especially in males. As William Shakespeare observed long ago, drink “provokes the desire, but it takes away the performance.”

Some people become relaxed and friendly when they are drunk. Others become aggressive and want to argue or fight. How can the same drug have such different effects? Some people drink for pleasure while others drink to cope with negative emotions, such as anxiety and depression. That’s why alcohol abuse increases with the level of stress in people’s lives. People who drink to relieve bad feelings are at great risk of becoming alcoholics ( Kenneth, Carpenter, & Hasin, 1998).

Also, when a person is drunk, thinking and perception become dulled or shortsighted, a condition that has been called alcohol myopia (my-OH-pea-ah) ( Giancola et al., 2010). Only the most obvious and immediate stimuli catch a drinker’s attention. Worries and “second thoughts” that would normally restrain behavior are banished from the drinker’s mind. That’s why many behaviors become more extreme when a person is drunk. On college campuses, drunken students tend to have accidents, get into fights, sexually assault others, or engage in risky sex. They also destroy property and disrupt the lives of students who are trying to sleep or study ( Brower, 2002).

Abuse

Alcohol, the world’s favorite depressant, breeds our biggest drug problem. More than 20 million people in the United States and Canada have serious drinking problems. One American dies every 20 minutes in an alcohol-related car crash. Significant percentages of Americans of all ages abuse alcohol (Figure 1).

Figure 1

Results from the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k11Results/NSDUHresults2011.htm

( Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011)

and

© Cengage Learning

Many Americans of all ages abuse alcohol. According to this 2010 survey, about 40 percent of young adults aged 18–29 admitted to heavy alcohol use or binge drinking in the month before the survey was administered

It is especially worrisome to see binge drinking among adolescents and young adults. Binge drinking is defined as downing five or more drinks (four drinks for women) in a short time. Apparently, many students think it’s entertaining to get completely wasted and throw up on their friends. However, binge drinking is a serious sign of alcohol abuse ( Beseler, Taylor, & Leeman, 2010). It is responsible for 1,800 college student deaths each year and thousands of trips to the emergency room ( Mitka, 2009).

Binge drinking is of special concern because the brain continues to develop into the early twenties. Research has shown that teenagers and young adults who drink too much may lose as much as 10 percent of their brain power—especially their memory capacity ( Brown et al., 2000). Such losses can have a long-term impact on a person’s chances for success in life. In short, getting drunk is a slow but sure way to get stupid ( Wechsler & Wuethrich, 2002).

At Risk

Binge drinking and alcohol abuse have become serious problems among college students ( Tewksbury, Higgins, & Mustaine,2008).

Children of alcoholics and those who have other relatives who abuse alcohol are at greater risk for becoming alcohol abusers themselves. The increased risk appears to be partly genetic. It is based on the fact that some people have stronger cravings for alcohol after they drink ( Hutchison et al., 2002). Women also face some special risks. For one thing, alcohol is absorbed faster and metabolized more slowly by women’s bodies. As a result, women get intoxicated from less alcohol than men do. Women who drink are also more prone to liver disease, osteoporosis, and depression. Each extra drink per day adds 7 percent to a woman’s risk of breast cancer ( Aronson, 2003).

Recognizing Problem Drinking

What are the signs of alcohol abuse? Because alcohol abuse is such a common problem, it is important to recognize the danger signals. If you can answer yes to even one of the following questions, you may have a problem with drinking (adapted from the College Alcohol Problems Scale, revised; Maddock et al., 2001):

As a result of drinking alcoholic beverages I… .

engaged in unplanned sexual activity.

drove under the influence.

did not use protection when engaging in sex.

engaged in illegal activities associated with drug use.

felt sad, blue, or depressed.

was nervous or irritable.

felt bad about myself.

had problems with appetite or sleeping.

Moderated Drinking

Almost everyone has been to a party spoiled by someone who drank too much too fast. Those who avoid overdrinking have a better time, and so do their friends. But how do you avoid drinking too much? After all, as one wit once observed, “The conscience dissolves in alcohol.” It takes skill to regulate drinking in social situations, where the temptation to drink can be strong. If you choose to drink, here are some guidelines that may be helpful (adapted from Miller & Munoz, 2005; National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2008):

Paced Drinking

Think about your drinking beforehand, plan how you will manage it, and keep track of how much you drink.

Drink slowly (no more than one drink an hour), eat while drinking or drink on a full stomach, and make every other drink (or more) a nonalcoholic beverage.

Limit drinking primarily to the first hour of a social event or party.

Practice how you will politely but firmly refuse drinks.

Learn how to relax, meet people, and socialize without relying on alcohol.

And remember, research has shown that you are likely to overestimate how much your fellow students are drinking ( Maddock & Glanz, 2005). So don’t let yourself be lured into overdrinking just because you have the (probably false) impression that other students are drinking more than you. Limiting your own drinking may help others as well. When people are tempted to drink too much, their main reason for stopping is that “other people were quitting and deciding they’d had enough” ( Johnson, 2002).

Treatment

Treatment for alcohol dependence begins with sobering up the person and cutting off the supply. This phase is referred to as detoxification (literally, “to remove poison”). It frequently produces all the symptoms of drug withdrawal and can be extremely unpleasant. The next step is to try to restore the person’s health. Heavy abuse of alcohol usually causes severe damage to body organs and the nervous system. After alcoholics have “dried out” and some degree of health has been restored, they may be treated with tranquilizers, antidepressants, or psychotherapy. Unfortunately, the success of these procedures has been limited.

One mutual-help approach that has been fairly successful is Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). AA takes a spiritual approach while acting on the premise that it takes a former alcoholic to understand and help a current alcoholic. Participants at AA meetings admit that they have a problem, share feelings, and resolve to stay “dry” one day at a time. Other group members provide support for those struggling to end dependency ( Vaillant, 2005). (Other “12-step” programs, such as Cocaine Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous, use the same approach.)

Other groups offer a rational, nonspiritual approach to alcohol abuse that better fits the needs of some people. Examples include Rational Recovery and Secular Organizations for Sobriety (SOS). Other alternatives to AA include medical treatment, group therapy, mindfulness meditation, and individual psychotherapy ( Buddie, 2004; Jacobs-Stewart, 2010). There is a strong tendency for abusive drinkers to deny they have a problem. The sooner they seek help, the better.[supanova_question]

Assignment task: You are being tasked with writing a detailed essay plan

Assignment task: You are being tasked with writing a detailed essay plan + annotated bibliography on one of the essay questions below:

“[…] globalization and al Qaeda notwithstanding, states are still the main actors on the world stage and are likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. Those states will also continue to worry a great deal about the balance of power, and this concern will shape much of what they do. In short, power politics are alive and well in the world around us” (Mearsheimer 2005, pp. 139-140) Critically assess the role of states in the contemporary world stage.

‘If you cannot measure it, your knowledge is meagre and unsatisfactory’ (inscription on the Social Science Research building façade at the University of Chicago). Can concepts such as power and international interest be measured?

‘Discuss the following statement with reference to a case study of your choice: the personal is international’ (Cynthia Enloe, 1989).

Critically analyse the issue of migration through post-colonialist lenses.

Are we witnessing a crisis of globalisation? Discuss with reference to the covid-19 pandemic.

Deadline: Monday 29th November 2021, h 23:59

Word limit: 1,000 words

Your work should be composed of two parts: a) a detailed essay plan; b) an annotated bibliography. The work will be assessed looking at the criteria below:

Answering the question. The essay plan should provide a sufficient insight on how you plan to address the essay question, i.e. your argument which will be develop further in the essay;

Use of academic literature and empirical evidence. Your essay plan should demonstrate how you are planning to use academic literature and empirical evidence to answer the question;

Structure. Your essay plan should be clearly structured with an introduction, main body and conclusion. The plan should anticipate what each paragraph of the essay will discuss. Each paragraph should develop around one main topic or idea;

Annotated bibliography. The annotated bibliography should list the sources used together with a brief description of the content and argument (usually about 100 words)

Plagiarism check:

Make sure that you submit an assignment draft to the Turnitin test submission inbox available for every assignment. Do this early enough that you still have time to make changes to your assignment. After you submitted your draft, open your submission. In the top right corner you will find a percentage that signal to what extent your coursework is identical with online sources as well as essays submitted to other universities. If you click on the score you can access a detailed report that shows you where the passages identical to your coursework are from, and how similar they are.

If your similarity score is below 20% then there is no significant overlap with other sources. You can go ahead and submit your assignment.

If your similarity score is between 20% and 40% then you check your referencing. Definitely make sure to read the Turnitin report carefully and check that all passages identified as identical to another source are either marked as direct quotes, with quotation marks and the original source correctly referenced, or reworded to reduce the similarity while still referencing the original source.

If your similarity score is above 40% you should do some substantial work on your assignment before submitting. Your coursework is too similar to other sources and likely classifies as plagiarism (it does not matter whether this is intentional or accidental). The issue could be that you include to many direct quotes or paraphrase too closely to original sources. Check the Turnitin report carefully to identify the issue and rework your assignment.

All submissions to your tutors will go through Turnitin automatically when you submit your final assignment. So the issues you can identify through the Turnitin test submission are the same issues that we see and take into account when grading your assignment later.[supanova_question]

Assignment task: You are being tasked with writing a detailed essay plan

Writing Assignment Help Assignment task: You are being tasked with writing a detailed essay plan + annotated bibliography on one of the essay questions below:

“[…] globalization and al Qaeda notwithstanding, states are still the main actors on the world stage and are likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. Those states will also continue to worry a great deal about the balance of power, and this concern will shape much of what they do. In short, power politics are alive and well in the world around us” (Mearsheimer 2005, pp. 139-140) Critically assess the role of states in the contemporary world stage.

‘If you cannot measure it, your knowledge is meagre and unsatisfactory’ (inscription on the Social Science Research building façade at the University of Chicago). Can concepts such as power and international interest be measured?

‘Discuss the following statement with reference to a case study of your choice: the personal is international’ (Cynthia Enloe, 1989).

Critically analyse the issue of migration through post-colonialist lenses.

Are we witnessing a crisis of globalisation? Discuss with reference to the covid-19 pandemic.

Deadline: Monday 29th November 2021, h 23:59

Word limit: 1,000 words

Your work should be composed of two parts: a) a detailed essay plan; b) an annotated bibliography. The work will be assessed looking at the criteria below:

Answering the question. The essay plan should provide a sufficient insight on how you plan to address the essay question, i.e. your argument which will be develop further in the essay;

Use of academic literature and empirical evidence. Your essay plan should demonstrate how you are planning to use academic literature and empirical evidence to answer the question;

Structure. Your essay plan should be clearly structured with an introduction, main body and conclusion. The plan should anticipate what each paragraph of the essay will discuss. Each paragraph should develop around one main topic or idea;

Annotated bibliography. The annotated bibliography should list the sources used together with a brief description of the content and argument (usually about 100 words)

Plagiarism check:

Make sure that you submit an assignment draft to the Turnitin test submission inbox available for every assignment. Do this early enough that you still have time to make changes to your assignment. After you submitted your draft, open your submission. In the top right corner you will find a percentage that signal to what extent your coursework is identical with online sources as well as essays submitted to other universities. If you click on the score you can access a detailed report that shows you where the passages identical to your coursework are from, and how similar they are.

If your similarity score is below 20% then there is no significant overlap with other sources. You can go ahead and submit your assignment.

If your similarity score is between 20% and 40% then you check your referencing. Definitely make sure to read the Turnitin report carefully and check that all passages identified as identical to another source are either marked as direct quotes, with quotation marks and the original source correctly referenced, or reworded to reduce the similarity while still referencing the original source.

If your similarity score is above 40% you should do some substantial work on your assignment before submitting. Your coursework is too similar to other sources and likely classifies as plagiarism (it does not matter whether this is intentional or accidental). The issue could be that you include to many direct quotes or paraphrase too closely to original sources. Check the Turnitin report carefully to identify the issue and rework your assignment.

All submissions to your tutors will go through Turnitin automatically when you submit your final assignment. So the issues you can identify through the Turnitin test submission are the same issues that we see and take into account when grading your assignment later. [supanova_question]

ALCOHOL ARTICLE THE ARTICLE ~ Students~ Read the article below completely before

ALCOHOL ARTICLE

THE ARTICLE

~ Students~

Read the article below completely

before you write your paper.

You may refer back to this article as you write your paper if you so desire .

Alcohol

Alcohol is the common name for ethyl alcohol, the intoxicating element in fermented and distilled liquors. Contrary to popular belief, alcohol is not a stimulant. The noisy animation at drinking parties is due to alcohol’s effect as a depressant. Small amounts of alcohol reduce inhibitions and produce feelings of relaxation and euphoria. Larger amounts cause greater impairment of the brain until the drinker loses consciousness. Alcohol is also not an aphrodisiac. Rather than enhancing sexual arousal, it usually impairs performance, especially in males. As William Shakespeare observed long ago, drink “provokes the desire, but it takes away the performance.”

Some people become relaxed and friendly when they are drunk. Others become aggressive and want to argue or fight. How can the same drug have such different effects? Some people drink for pleasure while others drink to cope with negative emotions, such as anxiety and depression. That’s why alcohol abuse increases with the level of stress in people’s lives. People who drink to relieve bad feelings are at great risk of becoming alcoholics ( Kenneth, Carpenter, & Hasin, 1998).

Also, when a person is drunk, thinking and perception become dulled or shortsighted, a condition that has been called alcohol myopia (my-OH-pea-ah) ( Giancola et al., 2010). Only the most obvious and immediate stimuli catch a drinker’s attention. Worries and “second thoughts” that would normally restrain behavior are banished from the drinker’s mind. That’s why many behaviors become more extreme when a person is drunk. On college campuses, drunken students tend to have accidents, get into fights, sexually assault others, or engage in risky sex. They also destroy property and disrupt the lives of students who are trying to sleep or study ( Brower, 2002).

Abuse

Alcohol, the world’s favorite depressant, breeds our biggest drug problem. More than 20 million people in the United States and Canada have serious drinking problems. One American dies every 20 minutes in an alcohol-related car crash. Significant percentages of Americans of all ages abuse alcohol (Figure 1).

Figure 1

Results from the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k11Results/NSDUHresults2011.htm

( Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011)

and

© Cengage Learning

Many Americans of all ages abuse alcohol. According to this 2010 survey, about 40 percent of young adults aged 18–29 admitted to heavy alcohol use or binge drinking in the month before the survey was administered

It is especially worrisome to see binge drinking among adolescents and young adults. Binge drinking is defined as downing five or more drinks (four drinks for women) in a short time. Apparently, many students think it’s entertaining to get completely wasted and throw up on their friends. However, binge drinking is a serious sign of alcohol abuse ( Beseler, Taylor, & Leeman, 2010). It is responsible for 1,800 college student deaths each year and thousands of trips to the emergency room ( Mitka, 2009).

Binge drinking is of special concern because the brain continues to develop into the early twenties. Research has shown that teenagers and young adults who drink too much may lose as much as 10 percent of their brain power—especially their memory capacity ( Brown et al., 2000). Such losses can have a long-term impact on a person’s chances for success in life. In short, getting drunk is a slow but sure way to get stupid ( Wechsler & Wuethrich, 2002).

At Risk

Binge drinking and alcohol abuse have become serious problems among college students ( Tewksbury, Higgins, & Mustaine,2008).

Children of alcoholics and those who have other relatives who abuse alcohol are at greater risk for becoming alcohol abusers themselves. The increased risk appears to be partly genetic. It is based on the fact that some people have stronger cravings for alcohol after they drink ( Hutchison et al., 2002). Women also face some special risks. For one thing, alcohol is absorbed faster and metabolized more slowly by women’s bodies. As a result, women get intoxicated from less alcohol than men do. Women who drink are also more prone to liver disease, osteoporosis, and depression. Each extra drink per day adds 7 percent to a woman’s risk of breast cancer ( Aronson, 2003).

Recognizing Problem Drinking

What are the signs of alcohol abuse? Because alcohol abuse is such a common problem, it is important to recognize the danger signals. If you can answer yes to even one of the following questions, you may have a problem with drinking (adapted from the College Alcohol Problems Scale, revised; Maddock et al., 2001):

As a result of drinking alcoholic beverages I… .

engaged in unplanned sexual activity.

drove under the influence.

did not use protection when engaging in sex.

engaged in illegal activities associated with drug use.

felt sad, blue, or depressed.

was nervous or irritable.

felt bad about myself.

had problems with appetite or sleeping.

Moderated Drinking

Almost everyone has been to a party spoiled by someone who drank too much too fast. Those who avoid overdrinking have a better time, and so do their friends. But how do you avoid drinking too much? After all, as one wit once observed, “The conscience dissolves in alcohol.” It takes skill to regulate drinking in social situations, where the temptation to drink can be strong. If you choose to drink, here are some guidelines that may be helpful (adapted from Miller & Munoz, 2005; National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2008):

Paced Drinking

Think about your drinking beforehand, plan how you will manage it, and keep track of how much you drink.

Drink slowly (no more than one drink an hour), eat while drinking or drink on a full stomach, and make every other drink (or more) a nonalcoholic beverage.

Limit drinking primarily to the first hour of a social event or party.

Practice how you will politely but firmly refuse drinks.

Learn how to relax, meet people, and socialize without relying on alcohol.

And remember, research has shown that you are likely to overestimate how much your fellow students are drinking ( Maddock & Glanz, 2005). So don’t let yourself be lured into overdrinking just because you have the (probably false) impression that other students are drinking more than you. Limiting your own drinking may help others as well. When people are tempted to drink too much, their main reason for stopping is that “other people were quitting and deciding they’d had enough” ( Johnson, 2002).

Treatment

Treatment for alcohol dependence begins with sobering up the person and cutting off the supply. This phase is referred to as detoxification (literally, “to remove poison”). It frequently produces all the symptoms of drug withdrawal and can be extremely unpleasant. The next step is to try to restore the person’s health. Heavy abuse of alcohol usually causes severe damage to body organs and the nervous system. After alcoholics have “dried out” and some degree of health has been restored, they may be treated with tranquilizers, antidepressants, or psychotherapy. Unfortunately, the success of these procedures has been limited.

One mutual-help approach that has been fairly successful is Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). AA takes a spiritual approach while acting on the premise that it takes a former alcoholic to understand and help a current alcoholic. Participants at AA meetings admit that they have a problem, share feelings, and resolve to stay “dry” one day at a time. Other group members provide support for those struggling to end dependency ( Vaillant, 2005). (Other “12-step” programs, such as Cocaine Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous, use the same approach.)

Other groups offer a rational, nonspiritual approach to alcohol abuse that better fits the needs of some people. Examples include Rational Recovery and Secular Organizations for Sobriety (SOS). Other alternatives to AA include medical treatment, group therapy, mindfulness meditation, and individual psychotherapy ( Buddie, 2004; Jacobs-Stewart, 2010). There is a strong tendency for abusive drinkers to deny they have a problem. The sooner they seek help, the better.[supanova_question]

ALCOHOL ARTICLE THE ARTICLE ~ Students~ Read the article below completely before

ALCOHOL ARTICLE

THE ARTICLE

~ Students~

Read the article below completely

before you write your paper.

You may refer back to this article as you write your paper if you so desire .

Alcohol

Alcohol is the common name for ethyl alcohol, the intoxicating element in fermented and distilled liquors. Contrary to popular belief, alcohol is not a stimulant. The noisy animation at drinking parties is due to alcohol’s effect as a depressant. Small amounts of alcohol reduce inhibitions and produce feelings of relaxation and euphoria. Larger amounts cause greater impairment of the brain until the drinker loses consciousness. Alcohol is also not an aphrodisiac. Rather than enhancing sexual arousal, it usually impairs performance, especially in males. As William Shakespeare observed long ago, drink “provokes the desire, but it takes away the performance.”

Some people become relaxed and friendly when they are drunk. Others become aggressive and want to argue or fight. How can the same drug have such different effects? Some people drink for pleasure while others drink to cope with negative emotions, such as anxiety and depression. That’s why alcohol abuse increases with the level of stress in people’s lives. People who drink to relieve bad feelings are at great risk of becoming alcoholics ( Kenneth, Carpenter, & Hasin, 1998).

Also, when a person is drunk, thinking and perception become dulled or shortsighted, a condition that has been called alcohol myopia (my-OH-pea-ah) ( Giancola et al., 2010). Only the most obvious and immediate stimuli catch a drinker’s attention. Worries and “second thoughts” that would normally restrain behavior are banished from the drinker’s mind. That’s why many behaviors become more extreme when a person is drunk. On college campuses, drunken students tend to have accidents, get into fights, sexually assault others, or engage in risky sex. They also destroy property and disrupt the lives of students who are trying to sleep or study ( Brower, 2002).

Abuse

Alcohol, the world’s favorite depressant, breeds our biggest drug problem. More than 20 million people in the United States and Canada have serious drinking problems. One American dies every 20 minutes in an alcohol-related car crash. Significant percentages of Americans of all ages abuse alcohol (Figure 1).

Figure 1

Results from the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k11Results/NSDUHresults2011.htm

( Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011)

and

© Cengage Learning

Many Americans of all ages abuse alcohol. According to this 2010 survey, about 40 percent of young adults aged 18–29 admitted to heavy alcohol use or binge drinking in the month before the survey was administered

It is especially worrisome to see binge drinking among adolescents and young adults. Binge drinking is defined as downing five or more drinks (four drinks for women) in a short time. Apparently, many students think it’s entertaining to get completely wasted and throw up on their friends. However, binge drinking is a serious sign of alcohol abuse ( Beseler, Taylor, & Leeman, 2010). It is responsible for 1,800 college student deaths each year and thousands of trips to the emergency room ( Mitka, 2009).

Binge drinking is of special concern because the brain continues to develop into the early twenties. Research has shown that teenagers and young adults who drink too much may lose as much as 10 percent of their brain power—especially their memory capacity ( Brown et al., 2000). Such losses can have a long-term impact on a person’s chances for success in life. In short, getting drunk is a slow but sure way to get stupid ( Wechsler & Wuethrich, 2002).

At Risk

Binge drinking and alcohol abuse have become serious problems among college students ( Tewksbury, Higgins, & Mustaine,2008).

Children of alcoholics and those who have other relatives who abuse alcohol are at greater risk for becoming alcohol abusers themselves. The increased risk appears to be partly genetic. It is based on the fact that some people have stronger cravings for alcohol after they drink ( Hutchison et al., 2002). Women also face some special risks. For one thing, alcohol is absorbed faster and metabolized more slowly by women’s bodies. As a result, women get intoxicated from less alcohol than men do. Women who drink are also more prone to liver disease, osteoporosis, and depression. Each extra drink per day adds 7 percent to a woman’s risk of breast cancer ( Aronson, 2003).

Recognizing Problem Drinking

What are the signs of alcohol abuse? Because alcohol abuse is such a common problem, it is important to recognize the danger signals. If you can answer yes to even one of the following questions, you may have a problem with drinking (adapted from the College Alcohol Problems Scale, revised; Maddock et al., 2001):

As a result of drinking alcoholic beverages I… .

engaged in unplanned sexual activity.

drove under the influence.

did not use protection when engaging in sex.

engaged in illegal activities associated with drug use.

felt sad, blue, or depressed.

was nervous or irritable.

felt bad about myself.

had problems with appetite or sleeping.

Moderated Drinking

Almost everyone has been to a party spoiled by someone who drank too much too fast. Those who avoid overdrinking have a better time, and so do their friends. But how do you avoid drinking too much? After all, as one wit once observed, “The conscience dissolves in alcohol.” It takes skill to regulate drinking in social situations, where the temptation to drink can be strong. If you choose to drink, here are some guidelines that may be helpful (adapted from Miller & Munoz, 2005; National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2008):

Paced Drinking

Think about your drinking beforehand, plan how you will manage it, and keep track of how much you drink.

Drink slowly (no more than one drink an hour), eat while drinking or drink on a full stomach, and make every other drink (or more) a nonalcoholic beverage.

Limit drinking primarily to the first hour of a social event or party.

Practice how you will politely but firmly refuse drinks.

Learn how to relax, meet people, and socialize without relying on alcohol.

And remember, research has shown that you are likely to overestimate how much your fellow students are drinking ( Maddock & Glanz, 2005). So don’t let yourself be lured into overdrinking just because you have the (probably false) impression that other students are drinking more than you. Limiting your own drinking may help others as well. When people are tempted to drink too much, their main reason for stopping is that “other people were quitting and deciding they’d had enough” ( Johnson, 2002).

Treatment

Treatment for alcohol dependence begins with sobering up the person and cutting off the supply. This phase is referred to as detoxification (literally, “to remove poison”). It frequently produces all the symptoms of drug withdrawal and can be extremely unpleasant. The next step is to try to restore the person’s health. Heavy abuse of alcohol usually causes severe damage to body organs and the nervous system. After alcoholics have “dried out” and some degree of health has been restored, they may be treated with tranquilizers, antidepressants, or psychotherapy. Unfortunately, the success of these procedures has been limited.

One mutual-help approach that has been fairly successful is Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). AA takes a spiritual approach while acting on the premise that it takes a former alcoholic to understand and help a current alcoholic. Participants at AA meetings admit that they have a problem, share feelings, and resolve to stay “dry” one day at a time. Other group members provide support for those struggling to end dependency ( Vaillant, 2005). (Other “12-step” programs, such as Cocaine Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous, use the same approach.)

Other groups offer a rational, nonspiritual approach to alcohol abuse that better fits the needs of some people. Examples include Rational Recovery and Secular Organizations for Sobriety (SOS). Other alternatives to AA include medical treatment, group therapy, mindfulness meditation, and individual psychotherapy ( Buddie, 2004; Jacobs-Stewart, 2010). There is a strong tendency for abusive drinkers to deny they have a problem. The sooner they seek help, the better.[supanova_question]