4.7. Supplemental Material You do not have to read the following case

4.7. Supplemental Material

You do not have to read the following case studies.  However, if you are interested in learning more, these are two very powerful cases. 

Case Study 1: Grace
He introduced  her to a woman whose sister lived in Germany. Grace was told that she would have to repay the travel costs by working for the woman’s sister, after which she could work as a babysitter or in a restaurant to send money back home. As she was unfamiliar with German currency, Grace didn’t have an understanding of the amount she would have to repay, but she decided to take the chance because she didn’t have better prospects for her life in her country and her family was pressuring her. As is typical in her community, she underwent a Juju (Voodoo) ritual where she swore never to betray the contact in Germany and that she would pay all the debts. 
A “trolley-man” accompanied me and a bunch of other women being taken to various countries in Europe to a hotel to organize our travel documents. I was given the passport of an African woman from a different country and then transported with another woman to Germany. Once I arrived, I was told that my debt was 50,000 euro (around 67,000 USD) which I realized would take a very long time to repay. My family’s contact then told me that to pay the debt, I would be working as a prostitute in brothels (which are legalized in Germany). It was then that I realized that my family’s contact was a madam. I refused and called my parents to explain what was happening, but they told me to obey her and do whatever she told me to do. I didn’t have any papers and didn’t know my rights. She said that if I asked anyone for help, I would be deported, so I didn’t think I had any choice but to become a prostitute. In Nigeria, we respect Germany. I didn’t even think that they did this as a job in Germany; in Italy and Spain, we know there is prostitution. My mother begged me to do what they said. I cried every time a man slept with me, because I was brought up Christian. Back in Nigeria, the father of my son had raped me, and this reminded me of that over and over.  
I worked day and night for months, doing everything they asked me, in order to get the money for my madam; and every day I cried. If I came home (I lived with my traffickers) without enough money, my madam would seriously reprimand and abuse me. And, after servicing clients, I would often have to wash dishes and take care of the children in the house. I worked for seven months and was told by my various employers that I had to have sex without condoms when asked.

Men demanded sex without condoms. At a well-known legal brothel, the owners told me directly that I had to have sex without condoms, otherwise I would be fired. The owners would ask the clients afterwards if they were happy, if I willingly serviced them without a condom. My madam wanted me to do it without a condom. She said that I was no better than the other girls, and I should do what the brothels wanted to earn more and pay her back. I wouldn’t be able to pay off the debt if I couldn’t work, so I did it. The women here are so desperate for money that they don’t care about AIDS—people here are ready to die. This is blood money, and it was killing me, too. 

​Seven months after I started, police carried out a check on the brothel and they asked me if I was working there voluntarily. I was very scared and, remembering the oath I had sworn before leaving Nigeria, I said “yes.” They looked over my papers and, realizing they weren’t mine, arrested me and took me to the immigration detention centre. While there I became sick, vomiting, and was brought to a hospital. I found out then that I had AIDS. My madam managed to track me down after I left the hospital and told me that I had to continue being a prostitute to pay for the remaining debt, which she said was still more than half of the 50,000 euro. I refused and she started threatening me and my family back home, who begged me to comply. By then, I had become acquainted with SOLWODI [Solidarity With Women in Distress], and they helped me to get settled and exit prostitution. I refused to go back to my madam and eventually reported her and her accomplices to the police.  

I am very mixed up now. Sometimes I have high hopes for the future and other times I feel very beaten down. I do not want to go back to Nigeria and I know I would be at risk there. I have a partner now who accepts me for who I am and the support of SOLWODI, which makes me happy. However, I wish people would tell parents that it is good to educate girls and get them proper job training, rather than sending them into prostitution. A child is a gift of God, whether it is a man or a woman. 
Women are not slaves and traffickers should stop taking other people’s children. No one should be forced; buyers, pimps and traffickers are killing human beings and spreading sickness. They should prostitute themselves if they want money! Some people are paying 90,000-100,000 euro to buy people. Stopping the sex industry would be the best, it should not exist—that’s blood money! 
When I was in the sex industry, I prayed that someone would take me away. If men would be charged, given severe punishments, it would stop. 

Note this excerpt is taken directly from the Equality Now website. Grace’s story was recorded as part of Equality Now’s Survivor Stories Project (Equality Now, n.d.). 
Source: Equality Now (n.d.) Trafficking Survivor Stories: Grace. Retrieved from https://www.equalitynow.org/campaigns/trafficking-survivor-stories/grace. 

Case Study 2: The Challenge of Investigating Sex Trafficking Cases 
Portions of a blog post written for the THORN website are presented below (Blumenthal, 2018).  The writer is Matt Blumenthal, a sergeant with the San Diego County Sherriff’s Department and a supervisor at the San Diego Human Trafficking Task Force. The focus of the post is to provide insight on what sex trafficking investigations entail and the challenges investigators face.  
In San Diego, most of the cases that we investigate entail sex trafficking within the US borders, with over 90% of victims who are US born and US citizens. Over 99% of our victims are females. The youngest we have encountered was 13 years old and the oldest was well into her mid-60’s. 
Kicking off an investigation 
Investigations usually begin one of two ways, (1) proactive work or (2) reactive work. 
We receive tips and leads from various sources and vigorously investigate everything we get our hands on. We network with other law enforcement agencies, NGOs, churches, schools, military, hospitals, and many other entities. The information they provide us is investigated and entered into our database. We routinely peruse websites known for prostitution and HT, looking for youthful looking pictures, known victims, and specific areas of the state/country known for higher percentages of HT. Any information uncovered through these various routes will start an investigation. 
Our task force is a  victim-centered task force. Therefore, the primary goal of all investigations is to recover the victim. The secondary goal is to arrest and prosecute the trafficker/pimp. 
Challenges faced in investigations. We face several challenges when taking on human trafficking investigations — time, money, man power, along with countless search warrants for social media and technology (cell phones). The transient nature of the crime makes it difficult to track both the victims and suspects, as they seem to disappear and reappear quickly. 
Historically, investigations were conducted on the street, because that was where trafficking and transactions were taking place. With the expansion of the internet, human trafficking surfaced on sites like Backpage and Craigslist and have morphed into sites like Facebook, Tinder, Tagged, and even Snapchat. 
With shifts in technology, Spotlight has become our most effective tool in locating victims. The software has solved countless cases for us and located many victims. 
What happens when a victim is recovered? 
Victims of human trafficking are also, many times, victims of sexual abuse, molestation, drug addiction, alcohol addiction, and many other forms of trauma. These victims have many obstacles that need to be dealt with before they can be readily accepting of the help we have to offer. 
Most victims will not identify as a victim until they encounter law enforcement  between 7-10 times. When they do not identify as a victim, they generally will not accept any assistance from us. 
When victims are ready to accept assistance, we have NGOs on call 24/7 for our task force. They will come to our location and provide the victim with whatever their immediate needs are — clothing, food, housing, and even transportation home. We have flown and bussed many victims home to family across the country. 
The NGOs, advocates, the DA’s Office, and our task force work with the victim to make her whole again.  The main goal is getting her safe  to start the healing process. We start building rapport and getting them to trust us. 
If they trust us, they will help other investigations by providing information on their trafficker. 

Blumenthal, M. (April 2018). Inside human trafficking investigations [blog]. Thorn. Retrieved from 

HLTH 453 Occupational Health and Safety Assignment 2 Assignment 2 – Chapter

HLTH 453 Occupational Health and Safety

Assignment 2

Assignment 2 – Chapter 1-3

Create a simplified flow chart for the workers compensation claims process for the state in which you wish to work in the future. Cite references in APA format on the reference page at the end of the assignment. Use the flow chart on pg. 71 in your text book as a guide (therefore, you may not choose California).

Information regarding employer responsibilities

Claim form

Authorization of medical treatment

Maximum amount of money

Information regarding insurance company

Amount of days they have to notify you of the status of your claim

What happens if they accept your claim

What happens if they delay your claim

What happens if they deny your claim

_______ Question 1 – Answered all parts with valid information (does not have to be in complete sentences) (15 points)

_______ Question 2 – Answered all parts with valid information (does not have to be in complete sentences) (30 points)

_______ Reference page in APA format (5 points)

________ TOTAL 50 POINTS

*Points deducted for incorrect spelling and grammatical errors

*Minimum effort on this assignment will receive a maximum grade of 80%[supanova_question]

4.6. Theories Criminological theories are not often applied to human trafficking, but

4.6. Theories

Criminological theories are not often applied to human trafficking, but they can sometimes be used to explain why trafficking occurs. Below are key theories discussed in chapter 3:

Rational Choice Theory: The theory essentially states that criminals, like traffickers, choose to commit crimes. They aim to obtain the maximum rewards possible, while avoiding any legal consequences. Ex: A pimp sells his prostitutes for money and keeps it hidden to avoid being arrested.

Routine Activities Theory: Three key components to this theory: motivated offenders, suitable targets, and a lack of capable guardians.

Situational Crime Prevention:  This attempts to reduce the opportunity for offenders to commit crimes.

Strain Theory:  Three sources of strain- failure to achieve positively valued goals, removal of positively valued stimuli, and confrontation with negative stimuli.        
Ex. In the attached link, you will learn about Amora’s story.  Amora is a 21 year old woman whose father sold her to a pimp when she was 10. She was trafficked for 10 years before escaping. She grew up in a neighborhood and environment where there was no room to grow. Her father was addicted to drugs and likely did not achieve his goals, and with little resources available, he sold his daughter in order to survive and continue to abuse drugs.    

The story is posted HERE. 

Trauma Bonding: When a trafficker victimizes, and at the same time, forms a fake relationship with their prostitutes. Ex: A pimp becomes a woman’s boyfriend, begins to abuse her, and forces her to become a prostitute. Even if she isn’t physically restrained, she may feel obligated to stay because she thinks he loves her and may change one day. Additionally, the trafficker may be taking care of all her basic necessities.[supanova_question]

451 Week 4 materials Read Chapter 4 in Nursing Leadership and Management:

Writing Assignment Help 451 Week 4 materials

Read Chapter 4 in Nursing Leadership and Management: Leading and Serving.



Read “An Analysis of the Relation Between Employee-Organization Value Congruence and Employee Attitudes,” by Amos and Weathington, from Journal of Psychology (2008).



Read “The Organization’s Safety Culture, Its Indicators and Its Measurement Capabilities,” by Halaj, Kutaj, and Boros, from CBU International Conference Proceedings (2018).



Read “Strategic Aspects of the Human Capital Management in the Development of Organizational Culture,” by Sprajc, Podbregar, and Hribar, from Economic and Social Development: Book of Proceedings (2018).



Read “The Impact of Internal Marketing and the Moderating Role of Organizational Culture on Nurse Job Satisfaction,” by Janjua, Ahmad, and Afzal, from Journal of Business and Economics (2014).



Read “Developing the Organizational Culture in a Healthcare Setting,” by Nightingale, from Nursing Standard (2018).



Read “Patient Safety Culture in Out-of-Hours Primary Care Services in the Netherlands: A Cross-Sectional Survey,” by Smits, Keizer, Giesen, Deilkas, Hoffos, and Bondevik, from Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care (2018).



Read “The Long Way Ahead to Achieve an Effective Patient Safety Culture: Challenges Perceived by Nurses,” by Farokhzadian, Nahid, and Borhani, from BMC Health Services Research (2018).



Read “Health Professionals’ Views on Feedback of a Patient Safety Culture Assessment,” by Zwijnenberg, Hendriks, Hoogervorst-Schilp, and Wagner, from BMC Health Services Research (2016).


https://search-proquest-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/docview/1800630941?accountid=7374 [supanova_question]

451 Week Four Assignment Leadership Change Project (180 points) Leaders seek opportunities

451 Week Four Assignment

Leadership Change Project

(180 points)

Leaders seek opportunities to be a change agent whenever the intent for change is required, needed, or desired. Innovation, critical thinking, and evidence-based research study findings (not articles or editorials) are key to impact change within an organization.

This assignment is designed to help you look at aspects of your professional practice to become an agent of change in the organization. Use your current or past experience to identify a change that should be initiated.

Review nursing research studies to find possible solutions. Locate one quantitative nursing research study directly related to the change topic in a nursing database:

After entering the University Library, click research databases (middle circle) click C to open the alphabetized list to the CINAHL database for nursing research studies.

Format as a 1/2 -3/4 double-spaced page paper (cover and reference page not included) with four APA headings that are bolded and centered, so as to maintain the focus of each section:

Change to be Initiated and Setting


Change Topic Evidence

Application of Evidence

Under the Change to be Initiated and Setting heading: Present the change with rationale that you intend to initiate and the specific setting, department or unit where the change will be initiated (e.g. acute, medical ICU; skilled nursing facility, rehabilitation department, public health, insurance department, etc.) (one paragraph) [30]

Under the Stakeholders heading: Identify all stakeholders who would be affected by the change (one sentence) [20] 

Under the Change Topic Evidence heading: Summarize how the research study addresses the topic of the change you want to initiate [60]

Under the Application of Evidence heading: Explain how the findings of the study could be used to assist in the

change you intend to initiate [60]

Correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, sentence structure, APA headings and format, 1/2 -3/4 doubles-paced page [10]

Note: You may want to save a copy of this assignment to refer to in NSG/498, Senior Leadership Practicum. In that course, you will be working to synthesize research findings. Although you cannot reuse this assignment to avoid self-plagiarism, it may serve as a helpful starting point.[supanova_question]

451 Week Three Assignment Managing Quality and Risk 180 points Managing quality

451 Week Three Assignment

Managing Quality and Risk

180 points

Managing quality often means addressing issues or problems when they first arise to avoid them from escalating into risks for the organization. The learning activities this week focused on some organizational challenges nurse managers are likely to experience. Select one of the following topics:

Mitigating bullying or lateral violence

Managing conflict 

Improving communication

Preventing nurse burnout

As a nurse manager in your health care organization, develop a plan for your selected topic to give to your supervisor or other administrator how the problem could be addressed. The summary should be concise and objective in nature (third vs. first person) that is without personal opinion or conjecture.

(your name, credentials)

Managing Quality and Risk Summary

(topic selected)


Select one of the following topics:

Mitigating bullying or lateral violence

Managing conflict 

Improving communication

Preventing nurse burnout

As a nurse manager in your health care organization, develop a plan how the problem could be addressed that you will give to your supervisor or other administrator. The plan should be concisely written and objective in nature (use third vs. first person) without personal opinion or conjecture.

Format: Copy/paste the table below to present your plan that is within a 1/2 to 3/4 single-spaced page length summary. Correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, sentence structure, APA format (10)

Problem (20)

Describe the specific problem and why it is important to address -100 words max. (cite current, scholarly source to justify importance)

Change Management (60)

Apply the theoretical principles of a change theory, according to Lewin or Kotter as they pragmatically (useful & realistic) relate to the problem as stated above (cite current, scholarly source for concepts)

Resources (40)

State how time, budget, space, personnel, education, and industry collateral would be utilized to address the problem, as stated above.





Industry collateral:

Engagement (50)

Discuss how employees could be pragmatically engaged that is based on the constructs of engagement theory (cite current, scholarly source for concepts)


Center for Writing Excellence

Reference and Citation Generator

Grammar and Writing Guides[supanova_question]