2 Impact of childhood exposure to domestic violence on development Yingqian Jiang

2

Impact of childhood exposure to domestic violence on development

Yingqian Jiang

University of Pittsburgh

EDUC 2008

Esohe Osai, Ph.D.

2021.11.17

The exposure of intimate violence partners (IPV) impacts the psychological development of the child. The violence can be sexual, emotional, or physical, and it impacts the mother’s competency in bringing up the children in the right way. Mothers play a crucial role in the child’s development, and the shared bond determines the child’s psychological state. The experience of IPV affects the child’s development in a negative manner, where it alters their psychosocial adjustment. In the past decade, researchers focused on the impact of the direct and indirect exposure of IPV on children and how it leads to post-traumatic stress. Children exposed to traumatic disorder feel insecure, tend to be aggressive, and have other behavioral problems. Also, the experience tends to lower their academic performance, and it is an experience that affects the development of the child. Childhood exposure to IPV negatively impacts their emotional, physical and psychological development, and it is an issue policymaker, clinicians and researchers ought to intervene.

Literature review

Adverse Childhood Experiences are particularly common among children in the welfare system (ACEs). Analyzed information from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, which includes caregiver interviews and caseworker reports, focuses on children in the welfare system. According to their findings, each extra ACE increases a child’s probability of receiving a low score on symptom checklists and socialization tests, and they were significantly increased. Furthermore, an increase in ACEs was linked to a higher risk of children developing a chronic medical condition. The average number of ACEs reported was analyzed in this study among children of various ages exposed to various stressors—the exposure to adverse effects on children’s welfare and later life as adults. Extreme stress is not helpful to the welfare of the children and makes weakens their overall health. The primary childhood experiences that can affect the development of the child include intimate partner violence and trauma.

Domestic violence has been a significant reason for injury to ladies and kids for a long time. Domestic violence likewise adds to 33% of the complete number of murders of females in the U.S. As announced by the American Psychological Association, roughly 3.3 million kids in the U.S have seen violence against their mom (Moylan et al., 2010). Thusly, the scientists of this current examination determined to concentrate on the end result of the openness of domestic violence in adolescence. Theoretically, kids who are presented with violence (saw, mishandled, or both) are relied upon to act more savagely in their grown-up years contrasted with the people who didn’t have such encounters (Murrell, Christoff & Henning, 2007). Notwithstanding, there is no past concentrate on that straightforwardly decides the conduct contrasts between people who were presented to violence in their youth and the individuals who were not (Moylan et al., 2010). Hence, the point of this review was to inspect the connection between youth violence openness and domestic violence wrongdoers.

This concentrate additionally took consensus, recurrence, and seriousness of savage conduct into account. In this review, an example of 1,099 grown-up male domestic violence wrongdoers of various nationalities was assigned to address the number of inhabitants in guys captured for battering in the United States (Moylan et al., 2010). Chosen people were exposed to finish polls that comprise inquiries with respect to recurrence of criminal demonstrations, seriousness, and event of vicious offenses, just as the level of an individual strengthening meeting was likewise led and surveyed by Doctoral-level experts. The outcomes assembled show there are extraordinary score contrasts in seriousness, recurrence, over-simplification, and psychopathology between subjects which have seen domestic violence in their adolescence and the people who have not. It prompts the end that the more often a kid has been presented with domestic violence, the more specific they will submit a vicious demonstration that supports the observational learning hypothesis.

The absence of a benchmark group was a significant impediment for this review as a friendly examination bunch was absent. One more impediment of this review was the conceivable inclination in the free factor youth openness to violence, as this variable was just evaluated using self-report estimations (Moylan et al., 2010). Also, the precision of these people’s recollections is sketchy because of the shame joined. Thusly, the inward legitimacy was low in this review. For future examination, assembling an example of male grown-ups who have seen violence notwithstanding, not becoming fierce would hypothetically show contrasts to get results.

Every year around 3 to 10 million youngsters witness domestic violence, and various investigations have recommended that 900,000 kids are abused by their guardians (McDonald’s et al., 2016). Moreover, youngsters who have seen domestic violence are typically the survivors of kid misuse, and specialists recognize this peculiarity as a double openness impact. Numerous past investigations have proposed that kids presented to such occasions have a fundamentally higher shot at creating conduct and psychosocial issues contrasted with the people who are not (McDonald et al., 2016). In this way, the investigating group selects to reinforce research on the impacts of openness to misuse of the youngster and domestic violence on mental prosperity in adulthood.

Kids who witnessed violence would encounter more elevated levels of externalizing and disguising issues in puberty contrasted with those people who have not. Moreover, kids who saw violence and were mishandled would have considerably more noteworthy degrees of externalizing and disguising issues. This exploration utilized Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a review led during the 1970s that inspects the meanings of kid abuses. The example size of the review incorporates 457 kids from 297 families, and the taking part youngsters were preschool age (McDonald et al., 2016). The example likewise includes 416 grown-ups. Meetings and exclusively directed surveys containing questions in regards to relational and youngster training rehearses were led. The gathered information was examined utilizing meta-investigation strategies.

The consequences of this examination uphold the speculation as the information proposes that kids presented with domestic violence are in more danger of disguising and externalizing issues. Convincingly, youngsters presented to violence figure out how to act in more forceful, restless, and discouraged ways. The estimations of domestic violence openness were extensively restricted, as just tolerably extreme activities like pushing, kicking, and hitting were estimated. More confounded types of misuse, including enthusiastic disregard, were not estimated. Also, these activities keep an eye on co-happen, and co-event was not thought of. Future should take more confounded types of misuse and co-event of brutal conduct into thought to assemble all the more biologically substantial results (De Bellis & Zisk, 2014). Kids presented to hint accomplice violence: distinguishing differential impacts of family climate on kids’ injury and psychopathology side effects through relapse combination models.

Exposure to domestic violence in adolescence can adversely affect a person’s deep-rooted emotional wellbeing. The US public agent information shows 11% of kids have been presented to suggest accomplice violence in 2008(McDonald et al., 2016). Various explores shown connections between violent openness and weakened mental and actual prosperity. Therefore, the specialists propose to fortify past investigations. The theory of this examination is, are the seriousness of experiencing the violence openness, yearly family pay, and the number of kids in a family straightforwardly identified with post-horrible pressure and psychopathology manifestations for various subgroups of kids? Two hundred ninety-one maternal parental figure kid sets were accumulated from a Colorado local area-based domestic violence organization. The risk factors to the development of child welfare include profile, demographics, and social-economic status (Lawson, 2019). Various cases go unreported and continue to cause more harm to their development.

Each qualified maternal parental figure finished the Child Behavior Checklist to survey the impact of close accomplice violence on conduct. Meetings were then led with guardians. In like manner, youngsters finished the Child Exposure to Domestic Violence Scale to gauge the seriousness of their openness to violence. Member’s identity, schooling level, yearly family pay, and the number of kids were considered. The analysts infer that kid abuse is firmly related to post-horrible manifestations. As the number of children expands in a family, kids become bound to foster emotional wellness issues when presented with domestic violence. Exposure to domestic violence changes an individual’s behavior where they are forced to act in a certain way. The risk levels that aggravate due to exposure to domestic violence include sexual abuse, child neglect, and physical abuse. The child changes behavior due to trauma and tends to have low self-esteem (Lucinda & Rasmussen, 2021). A trauma-informed approach needs to be developed to curb the issue.

As per the outcome regarding nationality, Latino kids foster less emotional wellness issues contrasted with Caucasian kids. Youngsters brought into the world to more taught guardians are likewise generally touchier to violence openness. The example size of the current review is somewhat restricted (McDonald et al., 2016). Social events, a bigger example, will permit the environmental legitimacy to be sufficient. The technique for estimating the seriousness of domestic violence openness can be improved as numerous youngsters experience extra horrendous events. Later on, scientists could explore motivations behind why a few kids have lower affectability levels to brutal openness contrasted with the others.

Infants exposed to physical abuse result in mental, behavioral, and physical conditions that negatively affect their health. Fuller-Thomson, Sawyers, and Agbeyaka (2019) states that 34-38 % of households in the United States expose infants to domestic violence, which affects their development later in life. It is a problem that requires to be addressed to mitigate the issue and come up with an amicable solution. The article explored three potential correlations, namely parental addictions, domestic violence, and parental mental illness. The analysis was conducted and classified into the region using the Brief Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) and comprised (n=13,327 women, n=9,241 men). To compile the result, the researchers used logistic and bivariate regression. The population that was used in the study was a quarter of them were Hispanics. The results indicated that 78.3% of the total population in the survey reported witnessing childhood abuse early (Fuller-Thomson et al., 2019). Domestic violence to infants is not associated with the addiction and mental health of the parent. It is a prevalent condition, and infants are in trouble of being exposed to this type of violence. Infants need a screening that is meant to identify the victims suffering from this distress and come up with a better solution.

Exposure to domestic violence weakens the child’s immune system, where their emotions and mental health are at risk (Henry, 2018). The policymakers need to classify infant exposure to domestic violence as a type of maltreatment and need an intervention. The article comprised random samples (n=295), and the data analyzed was from reported cases to the child welfare agency. The agency classified all reported cases as infant maltreatment and needed an intervention to curb the problem. However, it was not indicated as mandatory maltreatment, and the child welfare needs to recruit workers on ways of protecting children and the appropriate interventions required to deliver desired results.

Infants’ trauma is a result of social-emotional regulation in their day-to-day lives. The experiences a child undergoes plays a key role in determining their health. The trauma witnessed affects their midlife and old age (Infurna et al., 2015). The researcher collected data from the community residents who took part in the study of midlife resilience (n=191, mean age= 54, 54% were female) and its influence on the trauma. The report found that childhood trauma led to lowering the infants’ daily welfare and making them vulnerable. The childhood trauma suffered is exposure to intimate partner violence at a young age. Infants develop a bond with their parents, and once they experience IPV, it affects their psychological well-being and weakens them. Policymakers need to develop a program that will teach resilience and promote the detrimental effects likely to be suffered later in life. The social-emotional of the infants shapes their afterlife and determines the type of people they are going to be once they become adults. The neurobiological system of an individual is influenced by childhood trauma. Childhood trauma affects the development of the brain in various lifespans. The risk includes emotional and cognitive as it alters the amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus (Cross et al., 2017). Prolonged exposure to trauma results in adverse mental health. There is a need to develop a program that intervenes and saves the children.

References

Cross, D., Fani, N., Powers, A., & Bradley, B. (2017). Neurobiological Development in the Context of Childhood Trauma. Clinical psychology : a publication of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association, 24(2), 111–124. https://doi.org/10.1111/cpsp.12198

De Bellis, M. D., & Zisk, A. (2014). The biological effects of childhood trauma. Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America, 23(2), 185–vii. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2014.01.002

Fuller-Thomson, E., Sawyer, J. L., & Agbeyaka, S. (2019). The Toxic Triad: Childhood Exposure to Parental Domestic Violence, Parental Addictions, and Parental Mental Illness as Factors Associated With Childhood Physical Abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 36(17–18), NP9015–NP9034. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260519853407

Henry, C. (2018). Exposure to domestic violence as abuse and neglect: Constructions of child maltreatment in daily practice. Child Abuse & Neglect, 86, 79–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2018.08.018

Infurna FJ, Rivers CT, Reich J, Zautra AJ (2015) Childhood Trauma and Personal Mastery: Their Influence on Emotional Reactivity to Everyday Events in a Community Sample of Middle-Aged Adults. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0121840. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121840

Lawson, J. (2019). Domestic violence as child maltreatment: Differential risks and outcomes among cases referred to child welfare agencies for domestic violence exposure. Children and Youth Services Review, 98, 32–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.12.017

Lucinda A. Lee Rasmussen (2021) Witnessing domestic violence versus exposure to domestic violence: implications for assessing male adolescents adjudicated for sex offenses, Journal of Family Trauma, Child Custody & Child Development, 18:3, 241-262, DOI: 10.1080/26904586.2021.1875953

Murrell, A. R., Christoff, K. A., & Henning, K. R. (2007). Characteristics of domestic violence offenders: Associations with childhood exposure to violence. Journal of family violence, 22(7), 523-532

Moylan, C. A., Herrenkohl, T. I., Sousa, C., Tajima, E. A., Herrenkohl, R. C., & Russo, M. J. (2010). The effects of child abuse and exposure to domestic violence on adolescent internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Journal of family Violence, 25(1), 53-63.

McDonald, S. E., Shin, S., Corona, R., Maternick, A., Graham-Bermann, S. A., Ascione, F. R., & Williams, J. H. (2016). Children exposed to intimate partner violence: identifying differential effects of family environment on children’s trauma and psychopathology symptoms through regression mixture models. Child Abuse & Neglect, 58, 1-11