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November 26, 2014

Introduction and Target Classroom

The following lesson plans have been designed for an inclusive first grade classroom and are based on the Virginia Standards of Learning. In this classroom, there are twenty students accessing the general curriculum. For much of the day, classes are co-taught by a general education teacher and special education teacher. Students each have their own desk, and desks are grouped into four clusters. Students often move to different seats throughout the day in order to receive small group instruction. Twelve students are considered to be performing on grade level and three students are above grade level. Five students are still mastering Kindergarten goals, but are able to do some first grade level work. Often during reading and math class, one of the teachers spends part of the class period working at a table with the group of five in order to reinforce concepts and check for understanding. In these situations, the other teacher delivers instruction, circulates the room to observe students working independently, and monitors group work. In addition, there are usually extension activities available for those students who are capable for more challenging tasks.

The lessons included in this paper incorporate a variety of learning activities in order to meet the needs of all learners. The first lesson plan is a math lesson designed to teach the important life skill of telling time. Students will review essential skills such as distinguishing between the hour and minute hands and ultimately be able to tell time to the nearest half hour. The second lesson plan is a reading lesson designed to teach students how to use word families to decode unknown words. Both lesson plans address and accommodate for the needs of Thomas Mogan, who has been found eligible for special education services due to specific learning disabilities in both math and reading.

In the area of mathematics, Thomas is able to count from 0 to 100 and write the corresponding numerals. In addition, Thomas can consistently count forward by ones and twos, and is making progress with skip counting by fives and tens to 100. When asked to recall basic addition facts with sums up to 18 and the related subtraction facts, Thomas almost always needs to use manipulatives. Also, Thomas struggles with concepts of time and money. Thomas continues to confuse the hour and minute hand. When presented with an analog clock that shows the time eight o’clock, Thomas will often report the time as “twelve eight” or “eight twelve.” When working with money, Thomas can consistently identify a penny and report that each penny is worth one cent. However, Thomas struggles to distinguish between nickels, dimes, and quarters. He has trouble remembering the values of these coins as well and, therefore, has been unable to complete first grade tasks such as finding the value of a mixed group of coins.

In the area of reading, Thomas consistently reads from left to right and identify letters, words, sentences, and ending punctuation. Thomas also appears to be developing an understanding of and ability to apply basic phonetic principles. For example, Thomas is able to correctly identify beginning and ending consonant sounds of single syllable words such as cat, bed, and pot, but almost always miscues short vowel sounds. At this time, Thomas does not understand how to use word patterns to decode familiar words, but this has been identified as a significant area of need. Further, comprehension continues to be a struggle for Thomas. When asked to give the main idea of a selection, Thomas typically responds with one specific detail that he can recall.

Thomas was also recently diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder which continues to impact his learning. In the classroom, Thomas requires preferential seating and his teachers have been encouraged to allow extra wait time when Thomas is formulating both written and oral responses. During in class assessments, Thomas is permitted to have extra time and to take tests in a setting with reduced distractions.

In addition, Thomas’ behavior impacts his learning in the classroom. Thomas has trouble remaining in his seat for longer than ten minutes. Most often he leaves his seat when he does not understand his work or is frustrated with group activities. Further, Thomas’ frustration easily turns into anger which often is manifested in physical ways towards his classmates. In order to help Thomas monitor his behavior, his teacher has implemented a positive reinforcement chart. Students with learning disabilities often have low motivation, but teaching students to self-monitor their learning and behavior can greatly increase this motivation (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2012, p. 151). Therefore, Thomas earns a sticker on his chart for each day that he demonstrates appropriate behavior. Thomas knows that his goal is to earn a sticker for five consecutive schools days. Research shows that “staying in touch with your own progress toward a goal and knowing when you have reached it both reinforce the value of effort” (Chappuis, 2009, p. 151). The chart allows Thomas to visually track his behavior should help motivate proper behavior.

The lesson plans that follow are appropriate for all first grade students and specifically address some of Thomas’ academic areas of need. In addition, the accommodations and differentiation explained are geared towards Thomas’ unique needs and habits.

Lesson Objectives from SOL/POS:

1.8 The student will tell time to the half hour, using analog and digital clocks

_Station Teaching

_Skills Grouping

_Parallel Teaching

X_Content/Process

_Show & Tell

_Trouble Shooting

Students will:

Share ideas about why it is important to tell time

Listen to “It’s About Time,” by Stuart Murphy and John Speirs

GE Role:

SE Role:

Ask why it is important to tell time

Engage and Explain

_Station Teaching

_Skills Grouping

_Parallel Teaching

X_Content/Process

X_Show & Tell

_Trouble Shooting

Students will:

Give examples of appropriate activities for specific times

Set times to the hour and half hour using an analog clock

GE Role:

Ask for examples of activities and times in students’ daily lives. Record student ideas on a chart

Review number of minutes in one hour and one half-hour

SE Role:

Distribute individual clocks

Review position of hour and minute hands when a time is displayed to the hour and model that one revolution of the minute hand is one hour.

Ask where minute hand would be if it went half way around the clock

Active Learning

Students will:

Group 1:

Work in small groups to draw the hands on an analog clock, write the time and draw a picture of an appropriate activity, for a given time

Group 2:

Identify the minute and hour hand

Label minutes on analog clock by counting by 5s

Show the times to the hour and half hour on and analog clock

_Station Teaching

X_Skills Grouping

_Parallel Teaching

_Content/Process

_Show & Tell

X_Trouble Shooting

GE Role:

Lead small group activity and check for understanding

SE Role:

Work with students needing extra practice

Use clock with color coded hour and minutes hands

Scaffold counting by 5s

Reflection

Students will:

Play a Bingo game that involves matching analog clocks and digital times

_Station Teaching

_Skills Grouping

_Parallel Teaching

_Content/Process

_Show & Tell

_Trouble Shooting

GE Role:

Facilitate the game and assess as students match clocks

SE Role:

Assess as students match clocks

Assist students as necessary

Now & Then

_Station Teaching

_Skills Grouping

_Parallel Teaching

_Content/Process

_Show & Tell

_Trouble Shooting

GE Role:

Explain that understanding hours and half hours will help students figure out: How much time they spent at school…at soccer practice… doing homework… watching a favorite show

SE Role:

Connect new learning to cooking activity in science class. Ask students what you happened if the you were supposed to bake the cookies for half an hour, but you accidently left them in for one hour?

This math lesson plan, adapted from the Virginia Department of Education, is designed for a first grade inclusive classroom and addresses the Virginia Standard of Learning 1.8: the student will tell time to the half-hour, using analog and digital clocks. Throughout the lesson, the standard will be taught using a variety of techniques including whole group and small group instruction, related children’s literature, and hands-on-activities. Several prerequisite skills related to this topic will also be addressed so that at the end of the lesson, in addition to telling time, students will be able to distinguish between the minute and hour hands, and identify the number of minutes in both an hour and half hour. Throughout the lesson, Thomas will require frequent individual attention as well as positive reinforcement when on task.

In order to prepare for this lesson, the teacher will need the book, It’s About Time by John Speirs, individual student clocks, the classroom interactive clock, chart, markers, clock worksheets, crayons, paper, and the Bingo game.

At the beginning of the class, the students will move to the carpet. The special education teacher will begin a discussion about time by asking, “Why it is important to be able to tell time? What would happen if people did not know how to tell time?” The general education teacher will then read, It’s About Time, by Stuart Murphy and John Speirs. The story follows the daily activities of a young boy. Each page shows the boy doing an activity, as well as the time of the activity, on both an analog and digital clock.

Engage and Explain

After reading the story, the general education teacher will help students make personal connections by asking for examples of activities that they do, and the corresponding times. The teacher will record students’ responses on a large chart. As students give their responses, the special education teacher will place an individual clock on each student’s desk. After all students have the opportunity to share an activity, they will return to their desks.

The special education teacher will then ask the students to use the individual clocks to show the position of the minute hand when the clock shows a time to the hour. She will also model moving the minute hand one revolution around the clock and remind students that one revolution is equal to one hour. The general education teacher will explain that one hour is also equal to sixty minutes. Students will then practice setting times to different hours and moving the minute hand one full revolution. For example, the special education will say, “Please set your clock to 3 o’clock. Now show me what your clock will look like in one hour.” In order to reinforce that there are sixty minutes in an hour, the teacher will sometimes ask what the clock will look like in “sixty minutes,” and for other examples will ask what the clock will look like in “one hour.” Student should see that the minute hand moves the same distance in sixty minutes as it does in one hour. Both teachers will walk around the room during this time to check for understanding. This hands-on component is essential for students like Thomas. Students with learning disabilities and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder often must be “actively engaged in the task to be receptive to instructional guidelines or recommendations during instructions” (Hallahan et al., 2012, p.185). Most likely this hands-on activity will help Thomas retain the information.

The special education teacher will then ask all students to set their clocks to 3 o’clock. The general education teacher will walk around the room and assist students with this task if necessary. The special education teacher will ask, “If one revolution around the clock is one whole hour, where would half of an hour be?” Students will practice moving the minute hand half way around the clock. The general and special education teacher will walk around the room again and call out different times to the half hour for students to set on individual clocks. This will serve as a formative assessment for the teachers to determine which students need additional practice. According to Chappuis, formative assessment is so critical because teachers can use the data during the course of instruction to increase student learning (p. 10). In this situation, the teachers will use formative assessment to determine which students should move on to the next activity with the general education teacher, and which students would benefit from working in a small group with the special education teacher.

Active Learning

At this time students will break into groups based on the formative assessment described above. This small group instruction is critical for Thomas. Research shows that highly structured lessons and extensive teacher direction are necessary for students with learning disabilities to be successful (Hallahan et al., 2012, p. 153). In order to maximize learning, Thomas should sit directly next to the teacher during this group work.

Students working with the special education teacher will first review setting time to the hour. These students may be unable to distinguish between the minute and hour hands. The special education teacher will use individual clocks that have the words “hour” and “minute” written on the hands. The teacher will then review skip counting by fives with the students. The students will first do this out loud and then write the minutes by fives on paper clocks. This will help students to see explicitly that the minute hand on the six, corresponds to thirty minutes. The special education teacher will help students set times to the half hour, by breaking down the task into smaller steps. For example, the teacher will pose the scenario: Pretend it is 8 o’clock and you are playing with your favorite toy. Your mother says that you can play for half an hour more and then it is time to start your homework. At what time do you have to stop playing?

Teacher: What time is it now in our story?

Students: 8 o’clock

Teacher: Great. Please set your clocks to 8:00. Allow time for students to complete this task. What would the clock look like if you could play for one more whole hour? Allow time for students to process.

Students: 9 o’clock.

Teacher: Great. Now if you can play for only half of that amount of time, where would the minute hand be?

Students: On the 6!

This scaffolding technique will be important for Thomas. Students with learning disabilities often need direct instruction and guidance in order to eventually complete the task independently (Hallahan et al., 2012, p. 152). In addition, using a scenario in which students can easily relate to will help motivate learning.

At the same time, the general education teacher will lead a small group activity with the remaining students. Each group will be given a time of day and asked to draw the given time on a clock, write their time as it would appear on a digital clock, and draw a picture of something they might be doing at that time.

Reflection

All students will then play a Bingo game that involves matching analog and digital clocks with times to the hour and half hour. The general education teacher will call out the times, allowing adequate time for all students to process and find the match. Both teachers will walk around the room to check for understanding. The special education will assist students as needed. The teachers will make notes of individual student performance. This will serve as a summative assessment. This summative assessment will allow the teachers to “determine how many students are and are not meeting standards in a certain subject for purposes of accountability” (Chappuis, 2009, p.6).

Now and Then

Finally, to close the lesson, the general education teacher will explain that understanding hours and half hours will help students figure out how much time they spend at school, watching a favorite television show, at soccer practice or any other activity. The special education teacher will remind students about the baking activity from science class during which that they baked the cookies for thirty minutes. She will then ask the students what would have happened if they accidently left the cookies in the oven for one hour. Students should be able to use new knowledge to explain that the cookies would burn because an hour is longer than thirty minutes.

Short Vowel Discrimination Lesson Plan

Lesson Objectives from SOL/POS:

1.6d) The student will use short vowel sounds to decode and spell single-syllable words.

1.6 f) Use word patterns to decode unfamiliar words

_Station Teaching

_Skills Grouping

_Parallel Teaching

_Content/Process

_Show & Tell

_Trouble Shooting

Students will:

Review –op words from lesson from previous day

Listen as teacher rereads first four pages from Hop on Pop by Dr. Seuss

Identify rhyming words in the story

GE Role:

Ask students to recall rhyming words (-op family from previous day)

Reread first four pages of Hop on Pop

SE Role:

Ask student to choose and reread a page and point to the words that sound alike

Engage and Explain

_Station Teaching

_Skills Grouping

_Parallel Teaching

X_Content/Process

_Show & Tell

_Trouble Shooting

Students will:

Produce rhyming words when given a keyword in the word family

Blend onsets and rimes of several words in –up family

Participate in an activity to learn the importance of cooperation

GE Role:

Show sentence strips (see narrative)

have students practice blending the phonemes to create words by saying “/p/ /up/ pup”

Ask students to line up on one side of the room. Put students in pairs and tie string around ankles. Ask students to walk across the room while tied together

SE Role:

Write up, pup and cup on the board.

Ask students why these words rhyme and to highlight –up in each word

Ask students why it is important to cooperate and what good cooperation looks like

After students have walked across the room, point out that staying calm and listening to one another is a more effective way to accomplish a goal

Active Learning

Students will:

Group 1:

Glue pictures from Pup and Cup modified worksheet to construction paper and write corresponding sentence next to each picture

In pairs, students will practice reading sentences to each other and identify the rhyming words in each sentence.

Group 2:

Glue pictures from Pup and Cup modified worksheet to construction paper. Sentences will be scaffold so that students only need to write “up” on blank lines to complete the word

Students will read sentences together before reading one at a time in pairs

_Station Teaching

X_Skills Grouping

_Parallel Teaching

_Content/Process

_Show & Tell

_Trouble Shooting

GE Role:

Explain instructions and distribute materials

Monitor student work

Listen as students practice reading sentences and check for understanding

SE Role:

Prompt students in practicing blending onsets and rimes

Distribute materials

Listen and check for understanding as students read sentences individually

Reflection

Students will:

Cut out, sort (-up v. –op) and glue pictures from picture sort handout to construction paper

_Station Teaching

_Skills Grouping

_Parallel Teaching

_Content/Process

_Show & Tell

_Trouble Shooting

GE Role:

Distribute materials

Circulate the room and monitor student progress

Collect all complete picture sorts for summative assessment

SE Role:

Assist students from group 2 to identify sort and spell one word from each list.

Listen as students read the rhyming words

Now & Then

_Station Teaching

_Skills Grouping

_Parallel Teaching

_Content/Process

_Show & Tell

_Trouble Shooting

GE Role:

Ask students to recall story time earlier that day when the teacher read, One Hundred Angry Ants? How were they able to predict what word was coming next even though they had never heard the story before

SE Role:

Remind students that words that rhyme very often have the same spelling pattern. Therefore, students can use word patterns to decode unknown words

Give students the opportunity to share any other rhymes they know

“Short Vowel Discrimination” Lesson Plan

This reading lesson is designed for a first grade inclusive classroom. It has been adapted from a lesson published by the International Reading Association and addresses standards related to the student’s ability to apply phonetic principles in order to read and spell. More specifically, the lesson focuses on the Virginia Standards of Learning 1.6d and 1.6f. Standard 1.6d intends for learner to use short vowel sounds to decode and spell single syllable words. Standard 1.6f address the learner’s ability to use word patterns to decode unfamiliar words. Throughout the lesson, these standards will be taught using a variety of techniques including whole group and small group instruction, related children’s literature, and hands-on-activities. At the end of the lesson, the students will be able to identify and produce rhyming words, discriminate between short u and short o sounds, blend onsets and rime aloud to create words, and sort pictures based on their rimes. This lesson will also incorporate an activity to help students understand the importance of managing anger and cooperating with a group. This social skills lesson will be particularly important for Thomas because anger management and group cooperation have posed a barrier to his learning in the past.

In order to prepare for this lesson, the teacher will need Hop on Pop by Dr. Seuss, 20 copies each of pup in Cup worksheet, picture sort worksheet, construction paper, scissors, glue, pencils, “up wands” and sentence strips with the following sentences written, one per strip

P__p in c__p

P__p on c__p

C__p on p__p

C__p on c__p

P__p is ___

The first part of the warmup activity will be a review from the lesson the previous day in which students learned about words in the op family. The teacher will begin reading the list of op words and students will join in reading. At this time, the teacher will ask for a volunteer to explain why these words rhyme. Students should be able to explain that the words rhyme because they all end with op. As a formative assessment, the teacher should ask students to produce one word that rhymes with the word “pop.” Formative assessment is critical in the learning process because it gives the teacher the opportunity to redirect attention to the intended learning, point out strengths, and offer specific suggestions to guide improvement (Chappuis, 2009, p. 56). As the second part of the warmup activity, and link to the new lesson, the teacher will reread the first four pages of Hop on Pop. This will serve as the introduction to the up word family.

Engage and Explain

After reading the first four pages, the teacher will ask students which words rhyme: up, cup, pup. The teacher will write these words on a new chart and ask students what they notice about the words. Students should understand that the words rhyme because they all end with up. A student volunteer will then highlight “up” in each of the words listed. Students will then take turns reading the words by blending the phonemes: /p/, /up/, pup.

Next, the general education teacher will present five sentence strips as described above, and read each sentence aloud, filling in “up” for the blank lines. The teacher will ask students to read the sentences as the teacher modeled. The teachers will formatively assess students as they perform this task in order to determine which students are ready for the next activity, and which students should receive extra help from the special education teach for part of the remaining class period.

Before breaking into groups, the teachers will lead a short activity about the importance of cooperation. This activity will be particularly important for Thomas. Thomas often becomes angry when he does not understand a concept. As a result, he becomes disruptive and uncooperative. The general education teacher should begin by asking students what it means to cooperate, why it is important to cooperate, and examples of situations in which it is important to cooperate. The teacher will emphasize that in order for all students to learn, everyone in the room must cooperate. The teacher will then put the students in pairs and loosely tie a piece of string around the right ankle of one student and the left ankle of the other student. The teacher will then ask students walk across the room. After each pair has made it across the room, the teacher will point out that pairs who stayed calm and listened to each other made it across the room much more easily than pairs who tried to run across and yelling at each other. The teacher should emphasize that just as in this activity students must stay calm and listen to each other in order for everyone to reach the goal of learning the material (Shapiro, 2004, p. 44). This fun meaningful activity should help students realize the importance of cooperating.

Active Learning

At this time, the group of five students needing additional support will work at the small table in the back of the classroom with the special education teacher.

The remainder of the class will work with the general education teacher and will cut and glue pictures from the Pup in Cup worksheet onto construction paper. Students will then write the sentences from the sentences strip that corresponds to each picture. In pairs, students should then practice reading the sentences and identify rhyming words.

Students working with the special education teacher will first practice combining onsets and rimes. Students will glue pictures from the Pup on Cup worksheet onto construction paper with partially completed corresponding sentences. In order to accommodate the needs of the learners, especially Thomas, the sentences will show the first letter of the up words. Students will then hold their magic “up wands” next to the first letter in order to complete the word. This type of activity will be beneficial for Thomas. Research shows that “instruction that focuses upon common phonograms or rimes should help students develop the ability to use analogy to read new words (Johnston, 1999, p. 66). Also, using the “up wand” adds the visual modality to this learning activity.

Reflection

As part of the assessment, all students will complete an activity in which they will have to sort pictures as belonging to the up family or op family. Students will glue these pictures on different colored pieces of construction paper. Students who finish early can spell the word below it each picture and practicing reading the words. The completed picture sorts will serve as the summative assessment. As noted, it is critical that Thomas has extra time to complete this assessment. Also, in order for Thomas to have a fair opportunity to show what he knows, the teacher should take action to reduce unnecessary distractions in the classroom.

Now and Then

To close the lesson, the general education teacher will ask students to recall story time from earlier in the day when the teacher read, One Hundred Angry Ants. Remind students that though they had never heard that story before, there were often able to predict the words before the teacher said them. Ask students why there were able to do this. Students should be able to use new knowledge and explain that they could predict the words in the story because they sounded similar, or rhymed. Finally, the special education teacher will give students the opportunity to share any other rhymes they know.

Conclusion

The lesson plans are appropriate for an inclusive first grade classroom. The math lesson on telling time was adapted from the Virginia Department of Education. Thomas, the IEP learner of this paper, struggles with basic skills necessary to tell time. Therefore, strategies and accommodations are included to meet his specific needs. The lesson plan is structured in such a way that students have exposure to teacher instruction and modeling before moving into independent work. In addition, the hands-on activities and use of children’s literature help keep students engaged. The reading lesson targets Thomas’ difficulties with short vowel sounds. This lesson is also highly structured and makes use of interactive activities and multisensory teaching approaches. In both lessons, Thomas receives small group instruction from a special educator and accommodations designed to meet his unique needs.

Skip Count by Fives to Fill in the Boxes

From www.theteachersguide.com

P______ in c_____

P______ on c_____

C______ on p______

C______ on c ______

References

Chappuis, J. (2009). Seven strategies of assessment for learning. Boston: Pearson Education Inc.

Denis-Shaw, S. (2014). Teaching short-vowel discrimination using Dr. Seuss rhymes. Avon: International Reading Association. doi:http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/solsearch/sol/math/1/mess_1-8.pdf

Hallahan, D., Kauffman, J., & Pullen, P. (2012). Exceptional learners: An introduction to special education. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education Inc.

Johnston, F. R. (1999). The timing and teaching of word families. Reading Teacher, 53(1), 64. Retrievedfrom http://search.ebscohost.com.proxymu.wrlc.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ehh&AN=2257426&site=ehost-live

Shapiro, L. E. (2004). 101 ways to teach children social skills. The Bureau For

At-Risk Youth.

Virginia Department of Education (2004). It’s About Time. http://www.doe. virginia.gov/testing/ solsearch/sol/math/1/mess_1-8.pdf